Great video on the problems with making predictions about how certain technologies are poised to revolutionise education. There’s nothing particularly new in the video, but the presentation makes it really clear why comparison-type studies of technology in education are problematic. It also does well to make the point that learning is about what happens inside the student’s head and is a process that, while influenced by teachers, is not dependent on them.
For the past few years I’ve been involved in an NRF-funded research project looking at the use of emerging technologies in higher education. One of the products of that collaborative project was an edited book that has recently been published. Professor Denise Wood, one of the editors, describes the book on her blog:
This edited collection seeks to fill the current gap in understanding about the use of emerging technologies for transformative learning and teaching by providing a nuanced view, locating higher education pedagogical practices at an intersection of emerging technologies, authentic learning and activity systems.
The book, which is edited by Professors Vivienne Bozalek, Dick N’gambi, Denise Wood, Jan Herrington, Joanne Hardman and Alan Amory, includes case studies as examples, and draws from a wide range of contexts to illustrate how such a convergence has the potential to track transformative teaching and learning practices in the higher education sector. Chapters provide the reader with a variety of transformative higher education pedagogical practices in southern contexts, theorised within the framework of Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) and tool mediation, while using authentic learning as a pedagogical model upon which this theoretical framework is based.
I made a small contribution to the book in the form of a case study that emerged from my PhD work as part of the project. Professor Jan Herrington wrote the introduction to the section on the Case Studies:
Moving from theory to practice in higher education is deeply challenging. While exploring pedagogical models in the literature may lead to tacit understanding of general principles, actually implementing these principles in practice can be an entirely different matter. Authentic learning is a pedagogical model that is sometimes misunderstood, such as when teachers believe that in order for authenticity to be achieved, learning must occur outside the classroom in the real world. In fact, authenticity – as described in this model – can readily be achieved within the regular classrooms and lecture halls of the university environment. Providing examples of successful cases of such authentic learning environments offers an opportunity to explore the practical application of a theoretical model, and provide concrete instances of implementation in different subject areas. This chapter provides three such cases. The cases presented here provide international examples of authentic learning in practice across different discipline areas, using different technologies, and focusing on different aspects of the approach. The first case (Case study 14.1) describes the use of reflective analysis and role play in the study of obstetrics, using the model of authentic learning described in Chapter 5 (Herrington, 2014). It focuses on the use of technology as a mediating vehicle for authentic learning through the use of practice dilemmas. The second case (Case study 14.2) describes specific tasks developed within an authentic learning environment, using characteristics of authentic tasks (Herrington, Reeves, Oliver, & Woo, 2004). This case describes the use of complex contexts and the development of case notes in the study of physiotherapy. The final case (Case study 14.3) explores the use of wikis and blogs to mediate authentic learning in sport science education. All the cases represent authentic learning in action, and include details of the context, the tasks, and the problems that inevitably arise when teachers necessarily relinquish their more traditional role to allow students to take primary responsibility for learning. They are also effectively works in progress, where solutions are refined and improved in successive iterations. But above all, they are visible and tangible exemplars of theory in action.
While my own contribution was small, I’m really proud that I could be part of the initiative. The book is available on Amazon in a variety of formats.
Today was the first day of AMEE 2011, and a great start to my first international conference. Here are the notes I took.
Donald Clark – 21st century medical learning
“Death of the compliant learner” – almost all of my students are compliant, I hope Clark doesn’t buy into the idea that all of today’s students are somehow different? Even Prensky has moved on from the Digital Native debate
When the cost of education goes up, and the deliverable stays the same, you have the characteristics of a bubble → is higher education / medical education in a bubble (Malcolm Gladwell)?
Clark shows excerpt from Ferris Bueller’s day off to demonstrate poor lecturing style, gets a laugh but is caricaturing the format useful in terms of solving the actual problem?
Psychology of learning:
- Spaced practice
- Learn by doing
“The internet is shaping pedagogy”, this is the wrong way around. Effective teaching practice should make effective use of the internet.
“Lectures are ineffective for teaching”
- don’t inspire or motivate
- no critical thinking
- doesn’t emphasise values
- no social adjustment
- or behavioural skills
- only useful for transmitting information
Student and lecturer’s attention begins to fall off after 25 minutes, yet lectures often continue for much longer. Clark’s solution → record lectures! OR…change teaching practice to make use of that time more effectively
Cultural reasons for not changing teaching practice
Assessment is skewed towards favouring cramming
Is technology supporting assessment?
Surgeons who play video games perform better with laparoscopic procedures than those who don’t
I think Clark’s emphasis on technology misses the point. This isn’t the right audience to make assumptions about what technology should be used with what teaching approach. The message he’s sending is that we should use digital tools because they’re better. But he hasn’t spent enough time explaining what it’s better for and how.
The future of online continuing medical education: towards more effective approaches
Panel discussion (John Sandars, Pat Kokotailo, Gurmit Singh)
How do we get the new evidence base to change behaviour in health professionals? By delivering content and hoping → behavioural change
Online CME is about transmitting content from an “expert” to the person at home, and competing with their social lives. Does this have the intended impact of actually changing clinician’s behaviour? Sandars says “No”
How can the intended impact be achieved?
CME vs CPD
CME process whereby people keep updated regarding medical information
CPD includes CME but is more broad
e-learning implies that technology is used to enhance T&L but no definition of what technology is. I wish people would stop talking about e-learning until we demonstrate that it’s fundamentally different in terms of changing learning behaviour
List of digital tools and blending them with f2f spaces
Issues in obtaining evidence of effective CPD:
- Differing content in med ed → differing ways of delivering / teaching
- Traditional curriculum vs no curriculum
- Rare comparison between e-learning intervention and traditional intervention
- Difficulty with educational RCTs (very “medical” to think that RCTs are an important evaluative tool in education)
Kirkpatricks model to categorise the level of evaluative outcomes
Majority of research looks at participant satisfaction, but limited research demonstrating performance change in practice, no studies demonstrated that web-based CME had any effect on clinical practice
Internet learning associated with large positive effects compared with no intervention, but the effects were heterogeneous and small (internet learning interventions were broad in terms of content)
Comparison of different virtual patient desings suggest repetition, advance organisers, enhanced feedback and explicitly contrasting cases can improve learning outcomes (Cook at al, Academic Medicine, 2010)
Which “e-learning” techniques enhanced learning experiences?
- Peer communication
- Support of a tutor who was also a moderator
- Knowledge validation
- Course presentation
- Course design
Effectiveness of the online course is mediated by the learning experience
Cost effectiveness of online CPD is mainly based on self-report, so data not robust (Walsh et al, Education for primary care, 2010)
Most to least effective approaches (Bloom, International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care, 2005):
- Interactive techniques (audit / feedback, academic detailing / outreach, reminders)
- Clinical practice guidelines and opinion leaders less effective
- Didactic presentations and distributed print material have little to no effect
Therefore, not much evidence for the use of online learning, and the effects that do exist, are small (smaller than traditional), course design is important, and interactivity appears to be key
Improving knowledge and skills without an associated change in behaviour, is useless
- Isolated, invidualised online CME is focused on delivering content more efficiently but that misses the point
- We need to integrate social components into the learning experience
- We evaluate episodic events and expect to find behavioural change
- It’s not about one approach or the other, we need to blend different teaching methods
- We need to stop talking about e-learning, we don’t talk about overhead projector learning
Problems with CME (currently)
- Exisiting models do not improve patient care
- Current models are incomplete, and are used for different reasons
- Use is unco-ordinated
- Participation is low
- Much research names existing models as “largely irrelevant”
Moving from knowledge and skills to changing behaviour. What is the / a new model?
The outcome must be: improving patient care. This comes about through supporting information exchange, opinion and advice to make sense of the complexity of practice
Technology used must be useful and relevant
Technology + pedagogy = outcome (is it this simple?)
Should move psychological learning theory to sociological theory
Professionals learns as they go about doing things, sharing tacit knowledge, discussing and interacting with others in social networks. As people interact they share ways of thinking, feeling and acting in daly life, which influences their behaviours and habits. We are living, learning and changing in practice. They are reflexive. Learning, behaviour and change are all dynamically connected in networks and make practice complex.
Learning practive should be embodied and emergent
Reflexive networks used in teaching and learning
We should be more strategic in collaboration, rather than having collaboration forced.
How do you evaluate outcomes?
- CME credits
- Self-report: was it relevant and useful?
- Patient care audit: do patients have improved outcomes?
Tacit knowledge = useful knowledge
Practice and learning are inseparable
If individual practice is only part of the team approach, is it reasonable to expect that changing an invidual’s approach will actually impact on patient outcomes?
Interprofessional workplace-based learning using social networks
Difference between in/formal learning
80% of learning is outside the formal context. How do we make the informal learning explicit?
Between whom is learning taking place i.e. identifying actors within the network by mapping relationships between teams, professions, etc.
Look at density and information and communication flows
Everybody is involved in informal learning within networks, but the relationships are assymetrical and not collaborative or reciprocal
Network analysis is a useful method to identify relationships between professionals, but what do you do with the information i.e. how do you change the relationships?
Patient attitude to medical students experience in General Practice
Patients lack confidence to ask students to leave when receiving a personal physical examination by a GP
Female patients are less likely to have positive attitudes with regards a medical student conducting an assessment, although the numbers are quite high nonetheless
The context of the examination changes whether or not patients are happy to have students present e.g. sexual health, etc.
Learning at a clinical education ward: first and final year nursing students’ perceptions
Final year students have an emphasis on supervisor relationships and are more dependant on feedback and affirmation but don’t experience internal authenticity, which is what drives the understanding of the nursing role.
First year students focus on patient relationships with concomittant feedback
Creating a student ER
Highly integrated, student-centred, emphasis on PBL → creation of a student ER
Organisation based on teams, rather than a hierarchy. Team sees the patient concurrently, rather than consecutively
Approach allows the student to manage the patient with a focus on structured feedback. Tried to avoid students managing those with obvious serious pathology, cognitive dysfunction, etc.
Supervisor behind the student, not the other way around
Received positive feedback from students, in addition to significant improvement in student note-taking ability, among other clinical skills
Evaluating medical grand rounds – 10 years later
Mary J Bell
High numbers of repeated evaluations in order to determine reliability
We tend to give colleagues higher evaluator ratings
Highest scores had less to do with knowledge and presentation of objectives, and more to do with presenter style, level of presentation and enthusiasm → edutainment
When grand rounds were done using digital video, overal presenter ratings went down, seeming to concur with social learning theories i.e. we want to be in the same room as those we’re learning from (but is social just about physical presence?)
- Google and Wikipedia — Separated at Birth? http://tinyurl.com/yzxj3az #
- @patrickkayton I liked the cartoon look 🙂 #
- YouTube – Students Helping Students. A video by Michael Wesch http://bit.ly/cE7aDL #
- I know it’s ridiculously early, but I’m already looking forward to SAAHE ’10 at Wits in July this year http://bit.ly/9CGOA6 #
- @Sallykenyon12 Not on it at all, just saw a random tweet and followed it up. Don’t know if I have enough voyeur / time to watch other people #
- How to Destroy the Book, by Cory Doctorow (part two) | theVARSITY.ca http://bit.ly/awIOZX #
- Race Shapes Teen Facebook and MySpace Adoption, says danah boyd – ReadWriteStart http://bit.ly/c55Brc #
- Mohamed Amine Chatti’s ongoing research on Technology Enhanced Learning http://bit.ly/bPCgyp #
- Gumption: Clinical Wisdom: Knowledge, Experience, Compassion, Creativity and Honesty http://bit.ly/d8S9lF #
- Kevin Smith’s Plus-Sized Predicament : NPR http://bit.ly/axsayt #
- Chatroulette – only mildly disturbing http://bit.ly/bRdeWy #
- @cristinacost thanks for the offer, i’ll think about it and get back to you #
- @cristinacost at this point, a #diigo educators account is all I want. I’m tired of asking them for one #
- RT @pgsimoes: Building a #PLE – 15 Must-Have Web Apps for Students – http://ow.ly/197p0. Didn’t know about most of these…thanks #
- RT @acedtect: Don’t just shorten your URL, make it suspicious and frightening! http://www.shadyurl.com/index.php. This is awesome 🙂 #
- Filesharing is illegal, but not wrong. Winning essay by Canadian 12th grade student http://tinyurl.com/****** #
- RT @openednews: News: OpenCourseWare Consortium Panel Recap http://bit.ly/aVkMia (apologies for the shameless self-plug) #
- School Accused Of Spying On Kids In Their Homes With Spyware That Secretly Activated Webcams | Techdirt http://bit.ly/c6Wn4e #
- xkcd: Science Valentine. This is awesome http://bit.ly/9nbXs9 #
- The tool for the 21st century classroom. I use Docs, I collaborate with Docs, but this lady is way ahead of me http://bit.ly/cBRrB8 #
- I really like using KJots and it seems as if it’s going to be getting some very cool new features http://bit.ly/bZr2Lc #
- ♻ @pgsimoes: RT @antoesp: RT @Czernie Interesting: ‘A #Research Revolution: The Impact of Digital Technologies’ http://tinyurl.com/ydr63lu #
- @amcunningham he is, my comment is “saved, awaiting moderation”, it’s only short one, sent from phone between shop and office #
- Public Collections Empathy in Medical Education – Anne Marie Cunningham | Mendeley http://bit.ly/b5o2xV #
- @patrickkayton I think that’d be a great use of #cognician why don’t you whip something up for us quickly 🙂 #
- @amcunningham done, exciting stuff, we’ll have to come up with a cool name for this type of project…extreme writing or something 🙂 #
- @amcunningham If you mean lit. rev. online with docs, etc, I’m super-keen 🙂 #
- Arin’s Blog: How to write a literature review using only the web http://bit.ly/cVn4S2 #
- @marlonparker complete loss of speaker’s credibility #
- RT @clebe05: @wesleylynch did a cool interview on #TheDigitalEdge podcast – have a listen and share your thoughts – http://ow.ly/17OPS #
- Journals as Filters and Active Agents | Virtual Canuck. Make sure to read the comments as well http://bit.ly/b7CxPk #
- @cristinacost I like Carrington (http://bit.ly/bBhPef) on my WP site (www.mrowe.co.za/blog) #
- Great interview with Salman Khan (khanacademy.org) on his response to a crisis in education http://bit.ly/cPcLIb #
- Siemens – Teaching in Social and Technological Networks http://tinyurl.com/yknuclq #
- Developing a Pedagogical Framework for Web 2.0 and social software http://tinyurl.com/y9zsddj #
- @wesleylynch thanks, finding the stuff I’m working on at the moment quite a challenge 🙂 #
- Aligning outcomes, content and assessment to more accurately measure competence and facilitate meaningful learning…this stuff is hard #
- @sharingnicely I’m pretty happy with my coverage from Vodacom, haven’t been anywhere yet that doesn’t have it. Can’t speak for US tho #
- ♻ @p2pu: Breaking News: The new http://www.p2pu.org is live, and beautiful. Sign up for your course today! Congrats Bekka, it looks great 🙂 #
- A critique of Tapscott and William’s views on university reform, in Educause Review (see previous tweet) http://bit.ly/bUDcP2 #
- Innovating the 21st-Century University: It’s Time! (EDUCAUSE Review) | EDUCAUSE http://bit.ly/bkMYbo #
- Getting excited about the upcoming SAFRI (medical education) session in a few weeks http://bit.ly/99ULI7 #
- Just upgraded to #Kubuntu Lucid running #KDE 4.4 – better stability & nice new features, enjoying it so far http://bit.ly/ayygg0 #
- Facebook Driving More Traffic Than Google. Hard to believe & only 1 metric but is it a sign of things to come? http://tinyurl.com/ybxcwol #
- Peer-To-Peer Recognition of Learning in Open Education by Schmidt in the IRRODL journal http://bit.ly/bFVpMd via @addthis #
- Alternative Grad School: creating a do-it-yourself higher learning experience http://bit.ly/cBuCVM #
- Mobile platforms are proliferating. Check out MeeGo (merged Moblin & Maemo) http://bit.ly/d69pLv #
- Thought Leader » Eve Dmochowska » The web’s unavoidable sharp learning curve. Interesting comments http://bit.ly/9OPmrE #
- RT @maggiev: TESSA – Teacher Education in Sub-Saharan Africa (lovely resources here) http://bit.ly/dtb6rU #
- RT @patrickkayton: About to present Cognician to postgrad students and academics at CPUT. Smart crowd! #
- ♻ @cshirky: RT @pomeranian99: Length of Britannica’s entry about Wikipedia: 913 words. Length of Wikipedia’s entry about Britannica: 6,804. #
- Finalising details of collaborative project with Irish physio students on Physiopedia #isp1 http://bit.ly/dz2UGb #
- 21st century literacies (HASTAC), 10 additional literacies over and above the 3 R’s http://bit.ly/dtFcJt #
- Effective Pedagogy – rubric based on the structure of observed learning outcomes http://bit.ly/bV6dvv #
- OpeningScholarship Project | Centre for Educational Technology at UCT. Lots of interesting content http://bit.ly/brrRKk #
- UCT OpenContent portal now live. Congratulations to all involved http://bit.ly/dfAeCH #
- I’m on the #microecop programme committee (http://ow.ly/176eM), but sadly not on the list yet 🙁 #
- For The Love Of Culture – post by Lessig on issues around copyright and rights clearance http://bit.ly/bxsNCn #
- @gsiemens I’ve been using Chromium for a few months and now find FF slow and clunky #
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- Materials for Students: Writing the Academic Paper: What is an academic paper? http://bit.ly/3BB8fl #
- Great post by Rachael Lowe on 10 principles for the future of learning http://bit.ly/I7Ikx #
- Tweetbomb – A Tweet To Shake The World | Singularity Hub http://bit.ly/YjJRD #
- Scientists’ strategic reading of research enhanced by digital tools http://bit.ly/ZDUvv #
- Continuing Medical Education – open access medical journal http://bit.ly/d16oo #
- Royalties from Open Access | Virtual Canuck http://bit.ly/GL5GK #
- The Theory and Practice of Online Learning – free textbook by Terry Anderson (hard copy for sale) http://bit.ly/Adce5 #
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- Confidentiality within physiotherapy: perceptions and attitudes of clinical practitioners http://bit.ly/17OAXo #
- Teaching Commons – Scholarship of Teaching & Learning http://bit.ly/KnSy4 #
- Randy Bass: The Scholarship of Teaching: What’s the Problem? (Introduction) http://bit.ly/odIu7 #
- The Evidence on Online Education – Report saying that blended approach to learning is more successful than online alone http://bit.ly/WOWYa #
- Mendeley version 0.90 brings loads of additional features, like annotating PDFs. Very cool http://bit.ly/43bCB #
- “Proving the Benefits of Peer Instruction” – article on a study that looked at collaborative learning in small groups http://bit.ly/itZ6S #
- Peer to Peer – article on peer instruction, from Inside Higher Ed http://bit.ly/jnVS0 #
- MIT Teaching and Learning Laboratory – Teaching Materials http://bit.ly/dxrgS #
- Derek Bok Center for Teaching and Learning – loads of great resources for educators http://bit.ly/w4VPw #
- Facebook sez, “Don’t mind us, we’re just whoring out your photos” http://bit.ly/TMxXo #
- PHD Comics: Great Tweets of Science http://bit.ly/GncBU #
- Socialization as information objects « Connectivism http://tinyurl.com/ktfaon via http://www.diigo.com/~michaelrowe #
- “You Are Not My Friend” – Joel Klein on Facebook in TIME magazine (it’s a bit dated…2007 but still worth a read) http://bit.ly/rKAEk #
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I listen to a podcast called This Week in Tech (TWiT), hosted by Leo Laporte and few other tech writers and hosts of their own shows (if you don’t listen to TWiT and you’re interested in tech, I’d definitely recommend it). There are 2 things I specifically want to mention about 2 of the recent shows that I listened to.
Towards the end of TWiT 197 “Steal this diploma”, the panel had a discussion about the changing nature of higher education (clicking the link will open the transcript for the show…search for “how pedagogy is changing”). I think if you’re reading this blog then you might find that to be an interesting conversation.
The second thing I wanted to mention is that I’ve been following the tweets from the Personal Democracy Forum conference (#pdf09) after listening to TWiT 199 “I’m a dinner jacket” earlier today. I’m not exactly new to Twitter (although I don’t post as often as some, or follow people who talk about their breakfast) but there was something that I didn’t exactly get until today. I’ve used Tweetdeck to create a search for “education” and “technology” but haven’t been very impressed with the results. Now I realise that it’s only searching for phrases that contain those key words. We also used Twitter to follow each other on the Mozilla Open Education course I participated in a few months ago, but still I didn’t get it. It was only today that I realised that I can use it to follow events in real time, kind of eavesdropping on a conversation between everyone who’s actually there. I’m realising more and more how incredibly powerful Twitter is, not as a tool, but as a communications platform. You can also read this article in Time magazine about how Twitter is changing the way we communicate.
- Becoming a relational academic http://bit.ly/6IEsA #
- Academic Earth – The Human Brain and Muscular System, Great video lecture on anatomy (36 lectures available) http://bit.ly/mNMTp #
- Fascinating lectures on the nature of death, from Open Yale Courses. Plenty of other great content here http://bit.ly/E5w25 #
- Scholarly Teaching: A Model. Article by Trigwell, Martin, Benjamin and Prosser on the integration of scholarly teaching http://bit.ly/puSsR #
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