Last week I attended a teaching and learning colloquium at Granger Bay, near the Waterfront. It was organised to showcase some of the teaching practices being used at the 4 teaching institutions in the Western Cape. I was fortunate to be invited to present one of the keynotes on Friday morning and since I’ve been thinking about PLE’s lately, that was the focus of my talk. Below you can see the graphical notes taken by Ian Barbour of the 2 keynotes of the conference.
Here are my notes from the 2 days.
Innovation through foundational provision and extended programmes: future trends, threats and opportunities (Professor Ian Scott)
It can’t go on with us doing “more of the same”.
Higher education is elitist, with a tiny proportion of the population being recycled through the system.
We are moving towards mass participation, with all the associated problems that this brings
Innovation = taking new approaches, doing things differently from the mainstream (creative solutions to problems)
The main difference between HEI that do well and those that don’t, is the attention of the institution (Carey, 2008). There is effort and professional accountability, systemic enquiry and research
Success = developing strong foundations and completing the qualification well. Not just about access. It’s dependant on complex issues e.g. teaching and learning approach, affective support, material resources
Future challenges in academic development:
- Meeting the needs of the majority
- Low participation and racially skewed
- Poor and skewed graduation rate after 5 years = 30%
- Under 5% of black youth succeeding in HE (unsustainable)
- Makes little sense to continue on our current path, given the above stats
Who should extended programmes serve:
- Mainstream students who are now failing or are dropping out for learning-related reasons
- The majority of students who are not graduating in regulation time
- But EP’s are reaching less than 15% of the intake, even though it’s a majority need (how can we justify the status quo?)
What can be done?
- Extend the reach of EP’s in their present form, with a focus on improvement?
- Move to a flexible curriculum framework with a 4 year degree as the core?
- Can foundational provision be successful with limited student number, and if so, what are the limits?
- How does this sit with the need for expanding the programmes?
If success is dependent on small numbers, we have a big problem
Institutional differentiation: Looked at stratifying HEI’s, but who would end up in the “bottom” levels. Moved towards “reconfiguring the institutional landscape” through mergers. But there is a danger of institutions losing their way, and not sticking to their mission. Is this a distraction from the central goal of producing more, good graduates?
Will differentiation lead to further polarisation of the student intake in terms of educational achievement? Because educational achievement is not potential, and is still polarised along racial, socio-economic lines.
Will there be pressure to remove EP’s from “research” universities? → which will result in less funding and educationally disadvantaged institutions becoming the “new mainstream”
Are these bad things?
To what extent can structural change, in itself, make a difference? Are there any alternatives?
Building student confidence through a class conference in an extended curriculum programme (Maryke Meerkotter)
Some students are resistant to the concept of evolution (in biology)!
Initially, 45 students split into groups and given topics for poster presentation. But it was too open.
Next year had more specific guidelines, with more focused topic (53 students), and individual talks about their own poster
This year, conference was very specific. 87 students, so much more structure was needed i.e. specific mammals were assigned to individual students. Questions had to be answered to prevent cut and paste.
- Relieve lecture stress
- Students to engage with “irrelevant” content
- Raise awareness of importance of course content
- Allowed students to take ownership of the content, especially when assigned individual animals
- Practice oral presentation
- Exposed to poster making skills
- To have fun trying something new
Initial scepticism and advice:
- Doubt that it would succeed
- Too much unnecessary work
- Needs a good relationship with class, as lecturer should be confident that students can perform
- Some envisioned chaos, so needed clear guidelines
- Some advised no rewards, but students appreciated being acknowledged
- Holiday assignment
- Written and verbal communication of assignment tasks
- Guidelines about poster and oral presentations
- “Computer literacy” = Powerpoint
- Specific questions needed to answer in poster and presentation
- Lecturer created a poster as an example, in subsequent years take the best examples of previous years
- Provided rubrics for evaluation
- Minimum requirements for posters, and not part of evaluation, so students who could afford more weren’t advantaged
- Oral presentations marked by lecturer and teaching assistant (reliability)
- Audience tested at the end of each session (to ensure attendance of non-presenting students)
- Posters were peer marked, using similar content as the marking group (each student marked 3 other posters anonymously)
- Assignment of topics
- Find space for posters to be displayed
- Due dates for posters to be mounted
- Loading of oral presentations prior to talks (use email, caution with flash drives, time constraints)
- Lecturer needs to listen and mark at the same time
- Students were assigned posters to mark to avoid students marking their friends work
Empowers students to take ownership of course content, especially the “boring” courses. Recommended for small classes
Introducing concept mapping as a learning tool in Life Sciences (Suzanne Short and Judith Jurgens)
A lot of diversity in the course, in terms of student population
Some of the problems:
- The gap between school and university
- Testing of concepts reveals confusion
- Basic concept knowledge is inadequate, lecturers want to make assumptions about what students come into the course with
- Poor literacy levels for required university levels
- Low levels of student success
- Low pass rates
- Unable to manage the large volume of content
- Textbook content is “unfriendly”, not contextually relevant, language is inaccessible
- Poor integration of knowledge
- Don’t see how biology fits into scientific study
- Don’t apply knowledge and strategies from other subjects, concepts are compartmentalised
Hay, Kinchin and Lygo-Baker (2008). Making learning happen: the role of concept mapping in higher education.
Concept map: an organising tool using labels to explain the relationship between concepts, the links making propositional statements of understanding. Can be interesting to see how different “experts” in the course see it differently. We need to first negotiate our shared understanding of the course before we can expect students to understand it.
- To “deconstruct” faulty knowledge acquired at school and reconfigure it
- Better grasp the relationship between all areas of study
- Empower students with a learning and knowledge construction tool
- Facilitate better use of the textbook
Don’t rely on one source
Facilitates textbook use:
- overview of concepts and relationships
- awareness of learning strategies
- active use of resources
- Assists with knowledge construction:
- identified major concepts and links
- identified gaps in school learning
- useful as studying tool
- knowledge construction can be individualised
- Enables evaluation of student learning:
- view of student understanding “at a glance”
- encourage discussion of concepts and categorisation
- time consuming
- high levels of collaboration between staff
- not all student work visually / spatially
- takes practice to do well
A genre based approach to teaching literacy in a university bridging course (Taryn Bernard)
How do structure a writing course to develop academic literacy, including other cognitive skills in the first year, among diverse student groups?
Students compartmentalise knowledge and find it hard to integrate into other courses. How can this be addressed?
Students want to feel as if they’re dealing with university-level content, and not high school content
- Text-type e.g. journal articles, books, essays
- Abstract, goal orientated and socially recognised way of using language, limited by communicative purpose and formal properties
- Social code of behaviour established between author and reader
- “A term used for grouping texts together and representing how writers typically use language to respond to and construct texts for recurring situations”
Students need to be introduced to the “culture” of academic discourse
Student learning is affected not only by prior subject knowledge and by approaches to learning but also by the ability to deal with text genre (Francis & Hallam, 2000). An understanding of generic conventions increases success at university (Hewings & Hewings, 2001).
It’s important to validate prior knowledge, and many don’t see the purpose in academic discourse. Students sometimes feel it’s “too complex”
Quantitative literacy courses for humanities and law (Vera Frith)
UCT recognise information literacy as being an important graduate attribute
Quantitative information must be addressed in the disciplinary context
The more that content is embedded within a real-world context, the better
Students can be confused between focusing on the context, as opposed to the content e.g. placing emphasis on what they should be learning, with the contextual framework being used
The impact of horizontal integration of 2 foundation modules on first years knowledge, attitudes and skills (Martjie van Heusden and Dr. Alwyn Louw)
Earlier introduction to clinical placements have a significant influence on students professional development, especially in communication
Research assignments for first year med. students at SU:
- Identify conditions
- describe disorder
- use correct referencing
- submit to Turnitin with only 10% similarity allowed
Did knowledge improve? What about attitudes and motivation? Did it transfer to the 2nd year?
Research assignments contributed to improved student attitudes
Saw an improvement in writing and research skills
Assignments promoted self-esteem, increased background knowledge and allowed students to ask informed questions
Foundation matters: issues in a mathematics extended course
Important to be aware that students come into the course with mixed abilities, which affects how they perceive the course
Language support for communication skills of foundation Engineering students at CPUT (Marie-Anne Ogle)
Students ability to study is crippled by their lack of confidence in their ability to speak well
- Students don’t speak or hear English often
- School teachers don’t give presentation training
- Student lack self-esteem / confidence
- Students don’t have an understanding of their own problems
- Only 1 language lesson/week in a very crowded timetable
- Transparent goals
- Everybody must talk
- Students choose the subjects they want
- Intensive reading programmes to support this
- Students manage their own library
- Students take over the class towards the end
- Fun for self-motivation
“The limits of my language mean the limits of my world” (Ludwig Wittgenstein)
Use of clickers in Engineering teaching (Daniela Gachago and Dr. Mbiya Baudouin)
- Results are anonymous, instant, recorded for later
- helps to increase attention span, keeps students focused
- Every opinion counts, not just the correct one
- Works well with interactive learning and teaching style
- Direct feedback about students conceptual understanding
Good feedback tool for students, identifies misconceptions instantly that can be addressed immediately, students also become aware that others have similar problems i.e. they’re not alone
Important to use equipment to stimulate discussion
Mazur sequence (see also this transcript of Mazur presenting on using technology to engage students, as well as this video presentation).
You can forget facts but you cannot forget understanding
Use of clickers must be must be accompanied by discussion
“The more a lecturer talks, the less a student understands”
Students enjoy the experience of using new tools in class, very positive response, but they do need a short introduction
- System takes time to set up, and technical troubleshooting not always easy
- Can waste time
- Questions need to be changed often
- Type of question asked needs to change
- Can have “clicker fatigue”
Using clickers as a tool in classroom instruction to facilitate student learning (Mark Herbert)
Focus not on what student don’t know, but what they require to develop into successful practitioners of the discourse
Students exposed to how knowledge is constructed, structured and communicated
Lecturers facilitate student learning
Students must prepare for lectures (but do they?)
Constructive feedback given regularly and as soon as possible
Class attendance improved
Student interaction can stimulate learning. Students will often find the correct answer when discussing among themselves, without lecturer involvement
Student confidence increased as a result of using clickers
Innovative pedagogical practices using technology: my personal journey (Ingrid Mostert)
Blended learning model for ACE in mathematics
Bulk SMS (e.g. Frontline)
Off-campus access can be hampered with slow loading times, different to intranet
Someone else has already solved the problems that I have. The more people who know about my problem, the quicker it’ll get solved.
Moodle has a module for mobile access, which allows students to participate in forum discussions through a mobile interface
Can use mobile tech to conduct surveys. Is there a cost for students? Yes, but it’s minimal relative to SMS
Sharing experiences make the load lighter
Exploring the extent to which clickers enable effective student engagement (Somikazi Deyi, Edwine Simon and Amanda Morris)
Use real world events / contexts to make coursework relevant. What is important to students? Use that as a scaffolding for the course content
Planning is important
Students engage more deeply with complex questions. We should challenge them and raise our expectations of what they’re capable of
Difficult to draw conclusions after one session. Need to follow trends over time
Realise that other people have different perspectives and world views
Try group voting as opposed to individual voting