DeepMind’s agentsMetz, C. (2019). DeepMind Can Now Beat Us at Multiplayer Games, Too. New York Times.
are notreally collaborating, said Mark Riedl, a professor at Georgia Tech College of Computing who specializes in artificial intelligence. They aremerely responding to what is happening in the game, rather than trading messages with one another, as human players do…Although the result looks like collaboration, the agents achieve it because, individually, they so completely understand what is happening in the game.
The problem with arguments like this is that 1) we end up playing semantic games about what words mean, 2) what we call the computer’s achievement isn’t relevant, and 3) just because the algorithmic solution doesn’t look the same as a human solution doesn’t make it less effective.
The concern around the first point is that, as algorithms become more adept at solving complex problems, we end up painting ourselves into smaller and smaller corners, hemmed in by how we defined the characteristics necessary to solve those problems. In this case, we can define collaboration in a way that means that algorithms aren’t really collaborating but tomorrow when they can collaborate according to today’s definition, we’ll see people wanting to change the definition again.
The second point relates to competence. Algorithms are designed to be competent at solving complex problems, not to solve them in ways that align with our definitions of what words mean. In other words, DeepMind doesn’t care how the algorithm solves the problem, only that it does. Think about developing a treatment for cancer…will we care that the algorithm didn’t work closely with all stakeholders, as human teams would have to, or will it only matter that we have an effective treatment? In the context of solving complex problems, we care about competence.
And finally, why would it matter that algorithmic solutions don’t look the same as human solutions? In this case, human game-players have to communicate in order to work together because it’s impossible for them to do the computation necessary to “completely understand what is happening in the game”. If we had the ability to do that computation, we’d also drop “communication” requirement because it would only slow us down and add nothing to our ability to solve the problem.