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Universal principles of learning task design. Crisis edition.

It seems that everyone has decided to move teaching, learning and assessment online with a massive focus on synchronous, video-based lectures as the primary means of “delivering” the curriculum remotely. It’s as if we don’t have about 100 years of experience with distance learning to draw from and that there are no lessons to be learned from all of that experience. In this post I’m going to share what I think are important design principles for teaching and learning remotely, drawing mainly from my own experience with online and blended learning over the past few years.

While there are good pedagogical reasons for the principles I’m going to describe, there’s really only one reason that matters and it’s an ethical one. You should assume that at least one of your students is learning in this context:

It’s an extreme example but it highlights the fact that our students have enormous challenges trying to learn at home, and if this image doesn’t exactly describe all of our students’ home environment, it helps to focus our attention on what some version of those challenges might be. So here are my suggestions for anyone trying to work out how to “go online” over the next few months.

Universal principles for learning task design in a crisis

Prioritise asynchronous interaction. Because our students are at home with their families, elderly and sick relatives, young children and siblings, stressed parents, and barking dogs. Because their parents are now having to try and work at home as well, and they may all share one laptop (if they’re lucky enough to have a laptop at home). Because it’s not reasonable to expect 60 students to be able to get online at 09:00 on Monday morning. Because asynchronous interactions free everyone from the pressure of having to be availabe on your schedule. Asynchronous means that everyone has more flexibility to determine their own schedule.

Work offline as much as possible. Of course students will need to connect to the internet at some point (because we have to assume that they don’t have their notes, textbooks, slides, assignments and tests at home). But it’s not reasonable to expect your students to stay online for any length of time. Some of them (maybe most of them) will have always on, uncapped, fibre coming into their homes, distributed to 10 devices across multiple routers. We should not be focusing any attention on these students when it comes to learning task design. Our entire focus should be on the student who needs to stand in a corner of their back yard with their cellphone raised to the sky in order to connect to the internet. When we plan for the student who has an intermittent, unstable and expensive internet connection, we make it easier for everyone.

Privilege text over audio and video. There are lots of reasons that text is better than anything else and I’ll expand on these a bit since everyone is so focused on video right now and I think that this is an important point.

  • Text is searchable. Video and audio are not. Try finding a 30 second segment in a 20 minute video. Now try finding a description of something in a series of 5 one hour lectures. Try to avoid wasting students’ time by providing resources in a format that is searchable.
  • Text compresses better than anything else (making the file size compared to video, orders of magnitude smaller). This makes content quicker and therefore, cheaper to download. Also, lots of the video being planned for online learning is of the “talking head” variety, which means that the bulk of your students’ bandwidth is taken up by useless data (yes, the “video” part of your talking head is useless).
  • Text is usually more information-dense than audio or video, which again means that you can transmit more of it in less time. It also means that students can keep more of it in their limited phone storage capacity than they can with videos.
  • Text can be marked up with comments and questions, edited, copied/pasted, which is better for active learning than passively watching a video. None of your students can edit your video in order to extract meaningful information from it. They would have to transcribe the useful bits. This isn’t a good use of their time.

Low-tech over the Shiny New Thing. Now is not the time to ask students to download and install that new application that the IT department or edtech experts are suggesting everyone needs. If you need your students to go online, they should be able to do everything they need to via a browser, email client, or whatever software and apps you’ve been using extensively with them for at least a few months. These should already be installed on their devices. We not only need to assume that new apps will be an added expense to download and install, but it’s an additional cognitive load that will add to students’ stress and anxiety. In my opinion, email is the most fantastic killer-app in the current situation. In case anyone needs reminding, here are some features that are supported by email protocols:

  • One-to-one, private communication.
  • One-to-many, public communication.
  • Supports attachments of any format.
  • The email is an open standard that’s been around for longer than the web. It is solid, robust, stable, and very fast.
  • Email doesn’t require that anyone install anything since every device on the planet is capable of sending and receiving email.
  • Email supports asynchronous communication.
  • Email can be used offline with any email client.
  • Email is text-based.
  • Email is searchable.
  • No-one has to learn how to use email.

Simplicity over complexity. Now is not the time to have students struggling to understand what exactly you want them to do. Clear and simple instructions that leave no room for ambiguous interpretation are what students need to complete learning tasks in the current circumstances. I don’t any of my students to have to leave their homes (because they can only get online at the public library) in order to to send me an email to ask what exactly I expect them to do.

Everything is flexible. Deadlines. Learning tasks. Content to be covered. Assignment formatting. Everything. Let’s start from a blank slate and assume that this is an opportunity to think differently about everything. Let’s be open to suggestions, from colleagues, from friends, from students, from our own children. We can finally let go of the self-imposed expectation that we’re supposed to know what we’re doing and admit that, given the current global catastrophe, it may be OK to change…well, everything. Consider being flexible around the following:

  • Hard deadlines: “You can submit any time within a 3 day window.”
  • Format of student work: “You want to submit a narrated slideshow instead of an MCQ? Sure, let’s see how it goes.”
  • Expectations around device ownership: “No laptop? No problem. Write the essay by hand, take a photo of it and email it to me.” Pro-tip: It is unethical to expect any student to type an assignment on a phone.
  • Once we start looking for spaces within the curriculum for us and our students to be flexible, we’ll starting finding lots of creative, exciting opportunities emerging.

These principles aren’t perfect and they certainly aren’t new. But it feels like most educators and universities are throwing in their lot with a mass migration of content into learning management systems and other online platforms. I think that this is a mistake. Our students don’t need more resources that are high-bandwidth, expensive, and inherently worse than simple solutions. I believe that a combination of email, intermittent internet access, and plain text can get us 90% towards where we need to be with respect to teaching, learning and assessment in these trying times. Let’s not stuff things up even more by choosing “solutions” that will potentially disadvantage millions of learners across primary, secondary and higher education around the world.


Note: You may also appreciate these Low tech remote teaching principles produced by the Centre for Innovation in Learning and Teaching at the University of Cape Town.

By Michael Rowe

I'm a lecturer in the Department of Physiotherapy at the University of the Western Cape in Cape Town, South Africa. I'm interested in technology, education and healthcare and look for places where these things meet.

23 replies on “Universal principles of learning task design. Crisis edition.”

Excellent article, it is spot on! I hope this experience will lead us to a place where what is truly important in life and the way schools help children to get there takes the fore. The quest to create perfect corporate workers and consumers has to stop. We don’t really need them now!

Thank you, Prof. I’m glad to hear that the suggestions are useful.

Thanks Firdouza. It’s really become clear over the past few weeks how much pressure we’ve been putting on ourselves and on our colleagues. We need to focus on simple solutions that are going to disadvantage the fewest of our students.

This makes so much sense Michael! Your suggestions are solid, practical and doable. Well done!

Dear Michael
Thank you for your post and for bringing some sanity into the current learning and teaching situation. We are frantically grappling with and trying to provide solutions which often time is unrealistic and demoralizing. Once again thank you!

Good morning.

Really an excellent article. This really goes to the heart of the matter.

Thank you Mark, this was very useful. If one consider the above all the hard work has already been done and email is an excellent way to communicate this to our students.

[…] JPB: Most Universities have had their LMS Zero-rated on the Cell phone providers so that could make a difference. Only put things on the LMS so that it is almost free for students. Obviously no access to devices or internet at all is a more serious problem. Around Tech lite Michael Rowe has written very insightful (and practical) ideas: https://www.mrowe.co.za/blog/2020/04/resource-low-tech-remote-teaching-principles/  and https://www.mrowe.co.za/blog/2020/04/universal-principles-of-learning-task-design-crisis-edition/ […]

[…] JPB: Most Universities have had their LMS Zero-rated on the Cell phone providers so that could make a difference. Only put things on the LMS so that it is almost free for students. Obviously no access to devices or internet at all is a more serious problem. Around Tech lite Michael Rowe has written very insightful (and practical) ideas: https://www.mrowe.co.za/blog/2020/04/resource-low-tech-remote-teaching-principles/  and https://www.mrowe.co.za/blog/2020/04/universal-principles-of-learning-task-design-crisis-edition/ […]

Hi Marc. Thank you for the positive feedback. I’m glad that this post was useful. Keep well.

Probably the most helpful article I have read on this topic. Sane, considered, compassionate, wise and real.

Thank you, Michael Rowe!

Excellent article. Real trying times for teachers….this article provides wise counsel. Will share with colleagues
Thanks so much

Thanks Jayshree. I think that most teachers have been so poorly prepared (not their fault) to respond to this situation that, for many, the knee-jerk response has been to “get everything online” without too much consideration given to the students who will struggle. I hope that more teachers can be supported and shown how recreating face-to-face lectures and classrooms may make things worse for everyone, including teachers.

Hi Deon. You’re right. I don’t think that blaming anyone is useful. Everyone is doing their best within very difficult constraints. My aim with this piece was really to try and highlight some alternative options that I think reduce the potential for our poorest students to be left behind.

Hi Timothy. Nice suggestion to use school wifi as a free internet zone, maybe for those who live close by. My university is negotiating with the major service providers (Vodacom, MTN, etc.) to have access to our institutional LMS zero-rated, so that all student internet traffic isn’t counted towards their bandwidth.

Excellent article, agree with a lot of it. I would also look at how to increase more free bandwidth to students, such as using schools etc after hours as “free” internet zones which can be done relatively easily. Getting more access has to become part of the solution.

True and so relevant to most of our students. I hope everyone will have patience with each other and don’t blame the universities. We do everything in our power to render an excellent service to all our students, even if we have some difficulties with some of the technology. We will get through this.

Well said Dr Rowe. Hope we can all make the best of the present situation for ourselves, our students and all those whom we can affect in any way.

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