Introducing the Humanities into physiotherapy education

This post has been modified and published on The Conversation: Africa as Physiotherapy students have much to learn from the humanities.

Selection_018I’m increasingly drawn to the idea of integrating some aspect of the Humanities into undergraduate physiotherapy education. We focus (almost) all of the curriculum on the basic sciences and then the clinical sciences, which has a certain pragmatic appeal but ignores the fact that a person is more than an assemblage of body parts. We spend a lot of time time teaching anatomy and biomechanics (i.e. bodies as machines), and then exploring what we can do to bodies in order to “fix” them. While we pay lip service to the holistic management of the patient, there is little in our curriculum that signals to the student that this is something that we really care about.

“Science is the foundation of an excellent medical education, but a well-rounded humanist is best suited to make the most of that education.”

Empathy is critical to the development of professionalism in medical students, and the humanities – particularly literature – have been touted as an effective tool for increasing student empathy. In addition, there is some evidence that training in the Humanities and liberal arts results in health professionals with improved professionalism and self-care. In other words, health professionals who are exposed to the arts as part of their undergraduate education may demonstrate an increased ability to manage themselves and their patients with more care.

Hilary Allen_Artist in Residence 2015_1000

The relationship between emotion and learning has also been explored, with findings from multiple disciplines supporting the idea that emotion is intimately and inseparably intertwined with cognition in guiding learning, behaviour and decision making. The introduction of the Humanities in health professions education therefore has another potential impact; by using the arts to develop an awareness of emotional response, educators and students may find that exposure to the Humanities might lead to improvements in learning.

As I started looking into these ideas in a bit more detail, I realised that there are several examples of how art and literature are being explored formally by some very prominent medical schools.

dancingwheelsI was disappointed – although not surprised – not to find any good examples of physiotherapy departments who have formally integrated the Humanities into their curricula. However, I did find several papers (all by the same author with various colleagues) that describe a process of integrating these concepts into an undergraduate physiotherapy programme over a period of time, and these are listed in the references below.

avery_hosp_ward_low_resOver the past year or so, I’ve tried to bring some of these ideas into my Professional Ethics module, using the assignments for students to explore the Humanities (art, literature, theatre, music, dance, etc.) as a process of developing a sense of awareness of empathy in the context of clinical education. They can interpret the assignment in any way they want, for example, by writing a poem, drawing a picture, taking a photo, or re-interpreting a song. However, the important part is the reflection that they attach to the piece. Here are some examples of previous student work in this module, without the more personal reflections that accompany them.

  • Eleven hundred hours – poem by a student
  • The mind of the innocent – poem by a student
  • I’ve had two students provide videos of interpretive dance sessions used as methods to try and present an embodied experience of what it might be like to live with a disability.
  • Photovoice assignments (see below for examples): in these assignments students took photos of people and places and then reflected on how those experiences had informed their personal and professional development as ethical practitioners.

Selection_016

Selection_017

I’m hoping to get some experience with this process as part of these little experiments I’m running in the classroom, and that over time we can start building something more formal into the curriculum. Watch this space.

Additional readings

Physiotherapy in 2050: Ethical and clinical implications

This post describes a project that I began earlier this week with my 3rd year undergraduate students as part of their Professional Ethics module. The project represents a convergence of a few ideas that have been bouncing around in my head for a couple of years and are now coming together as a result of a proposal that I’m putting together for a book chapter for the Critical Physiotherapy Network. I’m undecided at this point if I’ll develop it into a full research proposal, as I’m currently feeling more inclined to just have fun with it rather than turn it into something that will feel more like work.

The project is premised on the idea that health and medicine – embedded within a broader social construct – will be significantly impacted by rapidly accelerating changes in technology. The question we are looking to explore in the project is: What are the moral, ethical, legal, and clinical implications for physiotherapy practice when the boundaries of medical and health science are significantly shifted as a result of technological advances?

The students will work in small groups that are allocated an area of medicine and health where we are seeing significant change as a result of the integration of advanced technology. Each week in class I will present an idea that is relevant to our Professional Ethics module (for example, the concept of human rights) and then each group will explore that concept within the framework of their topic. So, some might look at how gene therapy could influence how we think about our rights, while others might ask what it even means to be human. I’m not 100% how this is going to play out and will most likely adapt the project as we progress, taking into account student feedback and the challenges we encounter. I can foresee some groups having trouble with certain ethical constructs simply because it may not be applicable to their topic.

Exoskeletons are playing an increasingly important role in neurological rehabilitation.
Exoskeletons playing an increasingly important role in neurological rehabilitation.
The following list and questions aim to stimulate the discussion and to give some idea of what we are looking at (this list is not exhaustive and I’m still playing around with ideas – suggestions are welcome):

  1. Artificial intelligence and algorithmic ethical decision-making. Can computers be ethical? How is ethical reasoning incorporated into machines? How will ethical algorithms impact health, for example, when computers make decisions about organ transplant recipients? Can ethics programmed into machines?
  2. Nanotechnology. As our ability to manipulate our world at the atomic level advances, what changes can we expect to see for physiotherapists and physiotherapy practice? How far can we go with integrating technology into our bodies before we stop being “human”?
  3. Gene therapy. What happens when genetic disorders that provide specialisation areas for physiotherapists are eradicated through gene therapy? What happens when we can “fix” the genetic problems that lead to complications that physiotherapists have traditionally had a significant role in. For example, what will we do when cystic fibrosis is cured? What happens when we have a vaccine for HIV? Or when ALS is little more than an inconvenience?
  4. Robotics. What happens when patients who undergo amputations are fitted with prosthetics that link to the nervous system? When exoskeletons for paralysed patients are common? How much of robotic systems will students need to know about? Will exoskeletons be the new wheelchairs?
  5. Aging. What happens when the aging population no longer ages? How will physiotherapy change as the human lifespan is extended? There is an entire field of physiotherapy devoted to the management of the aging population; what will happen to that? How will palliative care change?
  6. Augmented reality. When we can overlay digital information onto our visual field, what possibilities exist for effective patient management? For education? What happens when that information is integrated with location-based data, so that patient-specific information is presented to us when we are near that patient?
  7. Virtual reality. What will it mean for training when we can build entire hospitals and patient interactions in the virtual world? When we can introduce students to the ICU in their first year? This could be especially useful when we have challenges with finding enough placements for students who need to do clinical rotations.
  8. 3D printing. What happens when we can print any equipment that we need, that is made exactly to the patient’s specifications? How will this affect the cost of equipment distribution to patients? Can 3D printed crutches be recycled? Reused by other patients? What new kinds of equipment can be invented when we are not constrained by the production lines of the companies who traditionally make the tools we use?
  9. Brain-computer interfaces. When patients are able to control computers (and by extension, everything linked to the computer) simply by thinking about it, what does that mean for their roles in the world? What does it mean when someone with a C7 complete spinal cord injury can still be a productive member of society? What does it mean for community re-integration? How will “rehabilitation” change if computer science is a requirement to even understand the tools our patients use?
  10. Quantified self. As we begin to use sensors close to our bodies (inside our phones, watches, etc.) and soon – inside our bodies – we will have access to an unprecedented amount of personal (very personal) data about ourselves. We will be able to use that data to inform decision making about our health and well-being, which will change the patient-therapist relationship. This will most likely have the effect of modifying the power differential between patients and clinicians. How will we deal with that? Are we training students to know what to do with that patient information? To understand how these sensors work?
  11. Processing power. While this is actually something that is linked to every other item in the list, it might warrant it’s own topic purely because everything else depends on the continuous improvements in processing power and parallel reduction in cost.
  12. The internet. I’m not sure about this. While the architecture of the internet itself is unlikely to change much in the next few decades (disregarding the idea that the internet as we know it might be supplanted with something better), who has access to it and how we use it will most certainly change.

An artist's depiction of a nanobot that is smaller than blood cells.
Nanobot smaller than blood cells.
I should state that we will be working under certain assumptions:

  • That the technology will not be uniformly integrated into society and health systems i.e. that wealth disparity or income inequality will directly affect implementation of certain therapies. This will,obviously have ethical and moral implications.
  • That the technology will not be freely available i.e. that corporations will license certain genetic therapies and withhold their use on those who cannot pay the license.
  • That technological progression will continue over time i.e. that regulations will not prevent, for example, further research into stem cell therapy.
  • …we may have to make additional assumptions as we move forward but this is all I can think of now

We’ll probably find that there will be significant overlap in the above topics, since some are specific technologies that will have an influence on other areas. For example, gene therapy and nanotechnology may have an impact on aging; artificial intelligence will impact many areas, as will robotics and computing power. The idea isn’t that these topics are discrete and separate, but that they provide a focus point for discussion and exploration, with the understanding that overlap is inevitable. In fact, overlap is preferable, since it will help us explore relationships between the different areas and to find connections that we maybe were not previously aware of.

Giving patients bad news in virtual spaces where we can control the interaction.
Giving patients bad news in virtual spaces where we can control the interaction.
The activities that the students engage in during this project are informed by the following ideas, which overlap with each other:

  • Authentic learning is a framework for designing learning tasks that lead to deeper engagement by students. Authentic tasks should be complex, collaborative, ill-defined, and completed over long periods.
  • Inquiry-based learning suggests that students should identify challenging questions that are aimed at addressing gaps in their understanding of complex problems. The research that they conduct is a process they go through in order to achieve outcomes, rather than being an end in itself.
  • Project-based learning is the idea that we can use full projects – based in the real world – to discuss and explore the disciplinary content, while simultaneously developing important skills that are necessary for learning in the 21st century.

I should be clear that I’m not really sure what the outcome of this project will be. I obviously have objectives for my students’ learning that relate to the Professional Ethics module but in terms of what we cover, how we cover it, what the final “product” is…these are all still quite fluid. I suppose that, ideally, I would like for us as a group (myself and the students) to explore the various concepts together and to come up with a set of suggestions that might help to guide physiotherapy education (or at least, physiotherapy education as practiced by me) over the next 5-10 years.

Augmented reality has significant potential for education.
Augmented reality has significant potential for education.
So much of physiotherapy practice – and therefore, physiotherapy education – is premised on the idea that what has been important over the last 50 years will continue to be important for the next 50. However, as technology progresses and we see incredible advances in the integration of technology into medicine and health systems, we need to ask if the next 50 years are going to look anything like the last 50. In fact, it almost seems as if the most important skill we can teach our students is how to adapt to a constantly changing world. If this is true, then we may need to radically change what we prioritise in the curriculum, as well as how we teach students to learn. When every fact is instantly available, when algorithms influence clinical decision-making, when amputees are fitted with robotic prosthetics controlled directly via brain-computer interfaces…where does that leave the physiotherapist? This project is a first step (for me) towards at least beginning to think about these kinds of questions.

 

An international project in professional ethics

Earlier this year I began working with several colleagues on an international module in professional ethics. We’re going to spend 2015 collaboratively designing a module that students from a variety of undergraduate physiotherapy programmes can complete, in both online and face-to-face contexts. The project builds on the work I’ve done previously as part of my PhD research (these notes are in progress), as well as on a pilot project I completed in 2013.

We currently have collaborators from several countries, including Brazil, Belgium and South Africa, and I’m hoping to get a few more during the workshop I’m running on Open Online Courses at the WCPT congress in Singapore in May. If you’re interested in the idea of collaborating on an international course in ethics, please let me know.

You can read more about our plans at the project website.

Starting new projects and catching up with old ones

It’s been a long time since I’ve updated my blog, for a few very good reasons. The first and most important is that in the middle of last year my daughter was born. I took time out from as many non-essential work-related activities as possible so that I could spend time with her whenever I could.

During this same period of time I also developed and ran an open online course on Professional Ethics in collaboration with Physiopedia as part of a sabbatical project I was working on. While I blogged extensively as part of the course, it meant that I had no time to write about other things I found interesting.

At about the same time, I agreed to chair the organising committee of the 2014 SAAHE conference, which was recently held in Cape Town. The conference organisation and sabbatical research project, together with my normal workload and commitment to family time meant that I had to take a step back from blogging.

However, now that the conference and research project is over and our family have settled into a more structured routine, I’m finding that I have a little more time to start blogging again. I thought that I’d get back into the swing of things by saying a little bit about the main projects that I anticipate working on during the next few months.

The first is my Clinical Teacher mobile app. It’s been ages since I’ve added any new content and I’m feeling really guilty about that, especially since interest in the project seems to be growing. I’ve slowly been adding bits and pieces to a few articles that I wanted to write but never had the time to finalise any of them. Over the next few months I’m hoping to finish 2 or 3 articles and get them published into the app. I’m also going to work on a visual refresh for the app. I’ve been really impressed with the material design principles highlighted in the the developer preview of Android “L”. The flat design and use of colour and depth, together with new ideas about fonts and how they display on many different screen sizes, has got me thinking differently about the app.

layout-principles-responsive-responsive-01_large_mdpi

The change won’t be anything drastic but I do want to give the app a more modern look and feel, and remove the faux leather covers and gradients. I also want to come up with a consistent image theme for article headers. The more recent articles have had an “animal” theme, where I try to find an image of an animal that somehow speaks to the topic (even if the link is only in my mind). However, there have been times when I’ve ignored that trend and just used something clearly related. I haven’t yet decided what to do but am clear that it will be a design decision that will be consistently applied moving forward. Finally, I want to experiment with the new features that Snapplify have been building into the platform, including publishing video and audio, annotations, and text highlighting.

I mentioned earlier in the post that in 2013 I ran an open online course on ethics, and would now like to build on that work. I’ve submitted a funding proposal to support the next phase of the project, which is to offer the course in a variety of countries and educational contexts, and across a range of professional disciplines. We learned an enormous amount during the 2013 experience and we want to build on those lessons by doing something that really challenges how we think about physiotherapy education in an international context. I’m definitely going to work with Physiopedia again, since we had a really great experience during the first course and their input was invaluable. I’ll post more about that project once I’ve found out about the funding outcome and ethics approval.

Finally, and on a somewhat related note, we’re going to be developing a few courses within our department, which we will offer to our clinical supervisors and clinicians at the placements where our students work. They will most likely be a blend of online and physical components, and be relatively short in duration (ranging from a few hours to 2-4 weeks). Our supervisors have identified several areas where they would like additional input that they feel will help them to better support our students. For example, assessment and feedback are two areas that could be improved. So, we’ll be exploring different ways to support our clinicians and supervisors over the next few months.

In addition to these projects, I’m also going back to Brazil in November to attend The Network: Towards Unity for Health conference. The main reason for attending is to try and establish partnerships with colleagues from other institutions, who might like to be involved in the international ethics project that I mentioned earlier. There are many parallels and similarities between Brazil and South Africa, and I’d like to develop stronger links between my own institution and others over there because there’s a lot we can learn from each other.

So that’s it. My tentative plans for the rest of 2014.

Faculty member on FAIMER Brazil (2014)

foto_dentro15851_2

I’m spending a week in Fortaleza, Brazil as part of the FAIMER-Brazil programme for 2014. FAIMER is an international programme aimed at developing capacity in medical education and research, especially in developing countries. There are regional institutes in South Africa, Brazil, India and China, and the main organisation in Philadelphia. I was here in 2013 and found the experience both professionally and personally rewarding. I’m not by nature a very sociable person or emotionally expressive…so being in Brazil is definitely an “opportunity for growth” for me, because they are SOCIAL! and EXPRESSIVE!

As part of my time here in Fortaleza, I’ll be assisting with a session on distance and technology-mediated teaching and learning, as well as helping the programme participants with their research projects. During that session I’ll be sharing the results of the open online module on professional ethics that we ran last year, using that project as an example to illustrate some general principles of distance and online learning.

On a side note, a few days ago one of the other faculty members approached me and started chatting. I’d realised that he looked familiar but couldn’t place him until he introduced himself as Roberto Esteves. I immediately recognised him as a physician and teacher who I’d become aware of through his posts on Google+, and who blogs at Educação Médica.

We ended up having a great conversation about medical education in general, as well as the possibilities for collaborative research projects between our institutions. For me, this was a wonderful example of how connecting with people online can strengthen the interactions and relationships you experience in the “real world”. This hasn’t happened to me very often (I don’t travel enough) but when it does it’s really powerful.

PHT402: The last independent act?

This is my fifth contribution to a series of weekly posts related to the #pht402 Professional Ethics course. This week’s topic asks if assisted suicide is ever OK? I thought it would be an interesting question to ask health care professionals and students what they thought about the possibility of a legal framework that enabled the possibility of assisted suicide.

dying with dignity

Until I watched this documentary that Marna shared, I believed that my thinking was pretty fixed with regards the topic of assisted suicide. Terry Pratchett explores assisted suicide as something that he is considering as a result of having Alzheimers. It’s a wonderful video that is at times sad and at times uplifting and empowering. What I liked most about the documentary was that several different alternatives were explored. It didn’t feel like an advert for Dignitas and didn’t try to glorify the act of assisted dying. I felt it was an honest and authentic exploration of the topic, which made me think that perhaps I’m not as committed as I thought I was.

cq4e889cf3However, instead of getting into the details of the topic and considering that this is the last week of the course, I’m going to cheat a bit and dodge this last topic. Perhaps what I offer instead will be a bit more provocative and off-the-beaten-track. In a few years time many of the questions that were raised around assisted dying will be replaced by others that are no less controversial – probably more so. I believe that in a few years we’ll figure out a way to cheat death, either through finding a cure for aging (see video below) and most other illnesses through the medical application of nanotechnology, or by moving our minds from a carbon-based substrate (i.e. a brain) to a silicon-based substrate (i.e. a computer). So, I’m not worried about losing the function of my physical body. It’s my mind that is most important to me and I hope that by the time my body is ready to go (assuming we haven’t cured aging by then) I’ll have a chance to upload my mind onto another platform.

PHT402: What is the value of a human life?

This is my fourth contribution to a series of weekly posts related to the #pht402 Professional Ethics course. This week’s topic is specifically about torture, but the general principle concerns the rights of the individual vs the rights of society, as well as asking about the relative value of a human life.

free-humanityI’m going to begin by answering the question in the title: “It depends on who’s life you’re talking about”.

When preparing this course I thought that the topic of torture could be used to move a conversation beyond the specific example of torture and look at the broad principle, which concerns the rights of an individual human being weighed against the rights of society. Or, to put it another way, how do we ascribe value to human life? I hadn’t really considered the possibility of a physiotherapist being asked about a patient’s physical condition in order to determine whether or not they could be hurt by someone else. It shouldn’t have surprised me though, since in South Africa we have a long history of our medical profession being complicit in human rights abuses that include torture (as highlighted in one of the readings for this week).

Even though the topic of torture has been questioned as part of this course, I think that the principles that emerged from the week’s discussions are relevant to other areas of our practice. For example, how many lives is one life worth? What value do we place on human lives? Are all human lives valued the same? These questions bring us back to the idea of equality and morality. Are we all equal? In what ways are we equal? How different are our boundaries of what is “right” and “wrong”? Is torture ever the “right” thing to do? The United Nations says it never is. But, there are times when your personal morality might say that torture absolutely is necessary. Wendy expressed this nicely when she asked about actions that may be morally wrong but which are morally justifiable.

I think that these are interesting questions that don’t need to be answered, but talking about them may help us to figure out some things about ourselves.

Naom makes two good points in her post, which are that your thinking around this topic is influenced by how you value human life, and whether the value of lives from those within your group is higher than those outside of it. As noble as we like to think we are, we do inherently place more value on certain lives than on others and this is where the importance of context comes in. My daughter’s life is more valuable to me than any other child in the world because she is my  daughter. She doesn’t need to have any special skills, knowledge or potential in order for me to value her more. As much as I like to think that we’re all equal, I have to acknowledge that we don’t all have the same value.

Um’r makes the point that for thousands of years, human beings have consistently looked for more and more ingenious ways to inflict pain and suffering on each other. He also links this week’s topic back to the questions of equality and morality, and then goes on to day that as much as each of us may abhor violence towards others, he asks how far he would go in order to protect those closest to him. This is challenge, to live the life we believe is right, even when faced with difficult choices. If every life is equal (Janine has a simple exercise that explores this), then torture can never be OK.

In the comments on Janine’s post there’s a question about how age could be a deciding factor in determining if a life could be sacrificed to save others.  In one context, age may be an appropriate reason to sacrifice a life but not in every context. For me, this is one of the most difficult skills that we need as health care professionals…the ability to modify our decision making processes depending on the unique context we find ourselves in. There are no universally correct answers to morally ambiguous situations.

Everyone I’ve read so far has focused on the military use of torture, but what about the other reading that briefly looked at the use of torture (or at least complicity in it’s application and cover up) by medical professionals? Tony has explored this by asking how medical professionals can be involved in torture.

I think that one of the most interesting aspects of Week 4s topic has been the emergence of side topics…conversations that were peripherally associated with torture but which became something else. Discussions about the value of life, morality, equality, moral boundaries, etc. all began happening in the comment threads, which was great to read. I think it really highlighted one of the benefits of a course with weak or flexible boundaries and participant-led discussion.

Finally, I’m going to point you to Chantelle’s blog, where she did a great job in relating the week’s broad topic to the South African context, as well as providing a reflective overview of the posts from Week 4. She opened her first post with this quote and I’m going to end with it:

The argument cannot be that we should not torture because it does not work. The argument must be that we should not torture because it is wrong.

PHT402: Empathy and professional practice

This is my first post for the #pht402 professional ethics course that I’m participating in for the next few weeks. The topic for the first week is to explore personal objectives related to empathy and professional practice in the health care context.

384002I’ve been teaching the Professional Ethics course at UWC for five years and have always found it to be both deeply stimulating and deeply unsatisfactory. It’s stimulating because the classroom conversation around morally ambiguous situations is challenging and invigorating. I love seeing the different ways that students think about and respond to ethical dilemmas. However, I was always disturbed when the same students who could tell me about the SASP Code of Conduct and the HPCSA ethical rules of conduct were unknowingly unethical in their treatment of patients. I realised that knowing about ethics was different to being ethical.

As I delved into the problem I became increasingly interested in the concept of empathy and it’s role in both patient care and student learning and have recently begun to explore it in more detail. It turns out that “the roots of morality are to be found in empathy“, conveyed nicely in the quote that Lauren used at the start of her post this week:

When you think like this, when you choose to broaden your ambit of concern and empathise with the plight of others, whether they are close friends or distant strangers; it becomes harder not to act; harder not to help.

I think that this is the crux of what it means to care in the context of health care. To really come to an understanding of what the other person is experiencing. I think that some of these ideas come out really nicely in the conversation happening in the comments on Chantelle’s blog. I can’t imagine a more distressing situation than a mother who is worried about her child. How do you connect with someone who is going through something that you haven’t? How do you say to them, “I understand”, when you don’t? Chantelle talks about the value of human connection and I have to agree with her completely. You can have all the knowledge and skills in the world but if you can’t connect to other human beings, you’re going to be a pretty mediocre physiotherapist.

My own interest in the role of empathy is less about patient contact and more about my interactions with students. As much as I know (and research has shown) that having an emotional connection to your learning is essential, most students have the same challenges as Umr does when it comes to “sharing”. However, even though moving into these personal spaces is difficult, I believe that it is only through developing relationships between people that human beings can truly flourish. As Marna suggests in her post, if you’re oblivious to this patient’s life beyond your doors, it’s unlikely that you’ll make any progress with them. I also believe, as Charde has learned for herself, that connecting with patients goes beyond the simply technical “compliance” rationale and helps to develop a sense of professionalism and deeper, more meaningful engagement with others.

During this course I hope to learn more about how physiotherapy students at the University of the Western Cape think about, and respond to, morally ambiguous situations. I believe that universities are the places where we need to develop the human capabilities that will enable transformative social change and I like to think that this course is one small space where we can give it a go. I will be following as many blogs as I can, reading and commenting where possible, in an attempt to get a better understanding of how students think, so that I can learn how to be a better teacher.

PHT402 Professional Ethics course introduction

Introduction for the PHT402 Professional Ethics course that is due to begin in about a week. The course is being run at the University of the Western Cape, in conjunction with Physiopedia and aims to explore different ways of developing generic attributes that are relevant for ethical professional practice in the healthcare professions.

CaptureHi everyone. My name is Michael and I’m one of the co-ordinators for the PHT402 course. You can read a little bit about me here and for an overview of the things I’m interested in, you can see what I post about on Google+.

I’ve been wanting to run a course like this for a few years but have only recently found myself with the time to actually put something together. I’m really excited to be working with Rachael and Tony from Physiopedia, who I was lucky enough to be able to spend some time with a few months ago.

I’m going to have two main roles during the next few weeks. I’m going to be participating along with everyone else and will post my reflections here, as well as try to comment on as many other blogs as possible. I’m also going to be acting as a facilitator of learning during the process. In that respect I’ll be writing posts that aim to scaffold your learning around the major course objectives. Note that these objectives are very broad and don’t aim to specifically direct your learning in any preconceived way. Think of them as signposts that you can use to evaluate your own progress. In fact, you should try to create your own learning objectives, which you can use to measure whether or not the course has been of value to you.

I’m going to be trying to post at least twice a week: one related to my own reflections as a participant, and one related to my role as a facilitator. One of the main things I’m going to be trying to do as a facilitator is to provide an overview of what I see happening in the course, and then make suggestions for improvement. These suggestions may be in the form of recommending a technological tool that could help you to filter the enormous amount of content that’s going to be generated, or it might be to point out additional resources related to learning. I’ll also be posting short comments on the course on Twitter, using the #pht402 hashtag (clicking on this link will open a new window in your browser showing the #pht402 Twitter stream). All of my blog posts will also appear in the Twitter stream, so that’s probably a good place to go and get an overview of what’s going on in the course.

Other than that, I’m really looking forward to following you all and having the opportunity to learn with you over the next few weeks.

Giving students a voice in Physiotherapy Ethics

I’ve been going through some of the “Professional Ethics” assignments I received from our third year physiotherapy students, and wanted to share this one with you (with the students’ permission). It was written by Basil Buthelezi, and which I think really showcases the wonderful talents our students have, which we would never usually encounter because we focus so much energy on the clinical component of physiotherapy education.

The assignment was to explore the theme of Human rights in South African healthcare, using any media that the students wanted. So far, I’ve received a fictional newspaper front page (which I’m hoping to put up here as well), been directed to this blog, and now this poem by Basil. I wanted to share it because I think it illustrates the potential that students have to amaze us when we give them the opportunity to speak with their own voices. Here’s the poem by Basil Buthelezi…

Site of entertainment (voices personalising HIV / AIDS)

I’m all over,
From the person next to you,
In the neighbourhood and,
All four corners of the world.

They all bow for me,
From TB to Cancer,
From strokes to the paralysed,
Beautiful or ugly,
From infants to the elderly,
Rich or poor,
White or black, “colour with no discrimination”,
But all the negativities in me.

Fair enough,
I’m tired of tears and the angry faces of stranded orphans,
Hopeless,
Harmless,
Hungry,
Homeless,
Their tears have given birth to an ocean.
Yes, my throat is dry, but I can’t drink in this ocean because it’s dirty,
All infected, the attack of vampires is in full swing,
Kill them, kill them all!!
Seize the duplication.

Dollars and dollars,
I have explored their pockets and robbed their monies,
Monies buying antiretrovirals
To keep me low, yet
The dead sentence is coming.

Graves and graves,
If they were coloured red
This world will be red, red
Red for danger
Red bloody red.

The equation is shifting,
Outplaying the moments of pleasure,
Abstain to restore the equilibrium
“Be faithful” is a song of goodwill.

If not!
Pause, before you explore the site of entertainment,
Have you worn a jacket to protect you,
To protect you from hot and juicy stuff?
I know you want to be happy down there…,
But you need a license to enjoy,
Cause I’m like a vampire waiting to attack
And destroy the essence of your life.

Basil Buthelezi (2009)