Twitter Weekly Updates for 2012-05-21

  • @RonaldArendse nice, who made it? #
  • RT @engadget: Neuroscientists develop game for stroke rehabilitation, give the Wii a run for its money http://t.co/TX6Un7bB #
  • Giving iPad PowerPoint Presentations Just Got a Lot Better http://t.co/YLBI0WLM via @zite #
  • Knowledge Graph A Great New Service from Google http://t.co/EskrzxDU via @zite #
  • @RonaldArendse congrats on your mention in the paper. Good work with cellphones for T&L in large classes 🙂 #
  • @RonaldArendse where’s the link? #
  • TED: Brené Brown: Listening to shame (2012) http://t.co/Amo1VBwm. Great follow up to the 2010 talk #
  • @HENNAWP U can export the map as an image & embed it / link to it, u can also link to the Cmap file & allow others to download it #checet #
  • “Information” is fragmented, “knowledge” is integrated. Concept mapping helps to turn information into knowledge #checet #
  • @sam_a19 initially it would take some time but thereafter it only requires refinement #checet #
  • @AatikaValentyn The Cmap file can be emailed. It only needs the software to be installed on the machine you use to open the file #checet #
  • Using concept maps to articulate & externalise conceptual understanding can also improve essay writing #checet #
  • Here is the presentation i gave this morning on PLEs http://t.co/TBDrR8ke #checet #
  • @KarienJooste you can embed a twitter feed (from a person, hashtag, or search) into a wiki #checet #
  • David Gelernter: Time to start taking the Internet seriously http://t.co/lDR62M5K. Great piece that changed my thinking #checet #
  • @dgachago17 “getting the story out there” also a process, no emphasis on product. If product is “poor”, has learning happened? #checet #
  • @dgachago17 the “purpose is to give students a voice”…isn’t that a process…the “giving” of the voice? #checet #
  • @IvalaEunice The devices are mobile, and because it’s wireless the students can respond from anywhere? #checet #
  • @waldoweimers Switch to pencil & paper. It’ll save on the “battery” concern, but cost you time #checet #
  • @jpbosman talks about using cellphones & wireless for audience response systems, instead of clickers which are expensive #checet #
  • @AatikaValentyn U can argue that digital literacy is as NB as reading & writing. And, they are an aspect of digital communication #checet #
  • Ethical aspects of recording and sharing encounters, while relevant, are not prohibitive. Obtain informed consent from participants #checet #
  • @dgachago17 I think that “process” is way more valuable than “product” 🙂 #checet #
  • @JonathanMarks3 “Learning the technology” should be an essential component of learning in a connected society #checet #
  • Vodcasting requires students to draw on / develop multiple skillsets that are not necessarily a formal part of the curriculum #checet #
  • @Phudsical backchannels are easier if you have an assistant who is familiar with the course to manage the background conversation #checet #
  • @waldoweimers Twitter constrains you by limiting the message to 140 characters. So, shorter, more concise expressions than blogging #checet #
  • @drekpo Thank you, hopefully today will also be useful 🙂 #
  • Students using vodcasts at Pollsmoor Prison to document their fieldwork skills and submit for assessment in Social Work degree #checet #
  • Neal Henderson talks about his students using video podcasts: visual experience / communication adds value to the assessment #checet #
  • RT @NicSpaull: When I read CS Lewis quotes I imagine him sitting in an old armchair smiling, and chuckling lightly just before he says it… #
  • RT @NatGeo: What makes us human? http://t.co/QEa9e2hn (via @NatGeoEducation) #
  • “Lurking” = listening to the background conversation without actively contributing = a form of legitimate peripheral participation #checet #
  • Think of a hashtag as a record of the background thoughts and feelings of an event like #checet #
  • @dgachago17 kicks it off at #checet integrating Twitter into practice, “the distance between people becomes smaller” #

Challenging students’ conceptual relationships in clinical education

I just wanted to share a thought while preparing our case notes for the Applied Physiotherapy module we’re developing. One of the designers made a note of the “guideline answers” for facilitators to some of the questions that we might use to trigger students’ thinking. I wrote the following as a comment and didn’t want to lose it when the document is finalised, so I’m putting it here.

“I think we should make sure that, in addition to the ‘answers’, we should identify the main concepts we want students to understand. Remember that we’re using our paper patient (i.e. the case) as a framework for students to learn about concepts. Then, they apply those concepts in the real world to patients. They reflect on those real-world interactions and identify dissonance between their experienced reality (the patient contact) and their abstract conceptions of reality (how they originally conceived of the patient contact). After the patient contact, they feed back to their small groups and facilitators, who together help students create new relationships between concepts. So, in short, the clinical concepts are learned initially through the paper patient, tested in the real world with an actual patient, discussed online (maybe) and then brought back to the classroom for further reflection and refinement. The next week they are exposed to new concepts that build on their previous experiences, and then they get to test those abstractions in the real world again.”

I’m trying to take an intentional approach to using Laurillard’s conception of academic learning that I’m exploring in “Rethinking University Teaching”

Teaching and learning workshop at Mont Fleur

Photo taken while on a short walk during the retreat.

A few weeks ago I spent 3 days at Mont Fleur near Stellenbosch, on a teaching and learning retreat. Next year we’re going to be restructuring 2 of our modules as part of a curriculum review, and I’ll be studying the process as part of my PhD. That part of the project will also form a case study for an NRF-funded, inter-institutional study on the use of emerging technologies in South African higher education.

I used the workshop as an opportunity to develop some of the ideas for how the module will change (more on that in another post), and these are the notes I took during the workshop. Most of what I was writing was specific to the module I was working with, so these notes are the more generic ones that might be useful for others.

————————

Content determines what we teach, but not how we teach. But it should be the outcomes that determine the content?

“Planning” for learning

Teaching is intended to make learning possible / there is an intended relationship between teaching and learning

Learning = a recombination of old and new material in order to create personal meaning. Students bring their own experience from the world that we can use to create a scaffold upon which to add new knowledge

We teach what we usually believe is important for them to know

What (and how) we teach is often constrained by external factors:

  • Amount of content
  • Time in which to cover the content (this is not the same as “creating personal meaning”)

We think of content as a series of discrete chunks of an unspecified whole, without much thought given to the relative importance of each topic as it relates to other topics, or about the nature of the relationships between topics

How do we make choices between what to include and exclude?

  • Focus on knowledge structuring
  • What are the key concepts that are at the heart of the module?
  • What are the relationships between the concepts?
  • This marks a shift from dis-embedded facts to inter-related concepts
  • This is how we organise knowledge in the discipline

Task: map the knowledge structure of your module

“Organising knowledge” in the classroom is problematic because knowledge isn’t organised in our brains in the same way that we organise it for students / on a piece of paper. We assign content to discrete categories to make it easier for students to understand / add it to their pre-existing scaffolds, but that’s not how it exists in minds.

Scientific method (our students do a basic physics course in which this method is emphasised, yet they don’t transfer this knowledge to patient assessment):

  1. Observe something
  2. Construct an hypothesis
  3. Test the hypothesis
  4. Is the outcome new knowledge / expected?

Task: create a teaching activity (try to do something different) that is aligned with a major concept in the module, and also includes graduate attributes and learning outcomes. Can I do the poetry concept? What about gaming? Learners are in control of the environment, mastering the task is a symbol of valued status within the group, a game is a demarcated learning activity with set tasks that the learner has to master in order to proceed, feedback is built in, games can be time and resource constrained

The activity should include the following points:

  • Align assessment with outcomes and teaching and learning activities (SOLO taxonomy – Structured Observation of Learning Outcomes)
  • Select a range of assessment tools
  • Justify the choice of these tools
  • Explain and defend marks and weightings
  • Meet the criteria for reliability and validity
  • Create appropriate rubrics

Assessment must be aligned with learning outcomes and modular content. It provides students with opportunities to show that they can do what is expected of them. Assessment currently highlights what students don’t know, rather than emphasising what they can do, and looking for ways to build on that strength to fill in the gaps.

Learning is about what the student does, not what the teacher does.

How do you create observable outcomes?

The activity / doing of the activity is important

As a teacher:

  • What type of feedback do you give?
  • When do you give it?
  • What happens to it?
  • Does it lead to improved learning?

Graduate attributes ↔ Learning outcomes ↔ Assessment criteria ↔ T&L activities ↔ Assessment tasks ↔ Assessment strategy

Assessment defines what students regard as important, how they spend their time and how they come to see themselves as individuals (Brown, 2001; in Irons, 2008: 11)

Self-assessment is potentially useful, although it should be low-stakes

Use a range of well-designed assessment tasks to address all of the Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs) for your module. This will help to provide evidence to teachers of the students competence / understanding

In general quantitative assessment uses marks while qualitative assessment uses rubrics

Checklist for a rubric:

  • Do the categories reflect the major learning objectives?
  • Are there distinct levels which are assigned names and mark values?
  • Are the descriptions clear? Are they on a continuum and allow for student growth?
  • Is the language clear and easy for students to understand?
  • Is it easy for the teacher to use?
  • Can the rubric be used to evaluate the work? Can it be used for assessing needs? Can students easily identify growth areas needed?

Evaluation:

  • What were you evaluating and why?
  • When was the evaluation conducted?
  • What was positive / negative about the evaluation?
  • What changes did you make as a result of the feedback you received?

Evaluation is an objective process in which data is collected, collated and analysed to produce information or judgements on which decisions for practice change can be based

Course evaluation can be:

  • Teacher focused – for improvement of teaching practice
  • Learner focused – determine whether the course outcomes were achieved

Evaluation be conducted at any time, depending on the purpose:

  • At the beginning to establish prior knowledge (diagnostic)
  • In the middle to check understanding (formative) e.g. think-pair-share, clickers, minute paper, blogs, reflective writing
  • At the end to determine the effectiveness of the course / to determine whether outcomes have been achieved (summative) e.g. questionnaires, interviews, debriefing sessions, tests

Obtaining information:

  • Feedback from students
  • Peer review of teaching
  • Self-evaluation

References

  • Knight (n.d.). A briefing on key concepts: Formative and summative, criterion and norm-referenced assessment
  • Morgan (2008). The Course Improvement Flowchart: A description of a tool and process for the evaluation of university teaching

Graphically representing a curriculum

Schematic map of the Milky Way

I’ve been a bit quiet on the blog lately, owing to the fact that I’ve been putting a lot of time into the next phase of my PhD. This post is in part an attempt to summarise and try to make sense of what’s going on there, as well as to assuage my feeling of guilt at not having posted for a while.

In terms of my research progress I’m currently running a Delphi study among clinicians and clinical educators, as well as a document analysis of the curriculum. The Delphi is trying to identify the personal and professional attributes that clinicians believe are important in terms of positively impacting patient outcomes, the relevant teaching activities that could be used to develop and assess these attributes, and any appropriate technologies that might facilitate the above teaching and learning activities.

I’m busy with the second round of the Delphi study (I’ll post the main results of the first shortly) and will begin analysing the curriculum documentation soon. The combination of these two projects will (hopefully) give me enough data to determine how we need to change the curriculum in order to better develop the attributes we’ve identified.

As part of that process I’m starting to look at curriculum mapping. What I’m struggling with at the moment is to figure out how best to represent what I’m learning as far as what the curriculum looks currently like, and how we need to change it. These are the difficulties I’ve come up with:

  • The learning process isn’t linear, which cuts out a narrative representation
  • A curriculum is organised by many things e.g. outcomes, content, teaching approach, assessment tasks, time, space, etc. How do you emphasise all of these (and their relationships) while keeping some measure of sanity?
  • There are many interrelated concepts i.e. multiple connections, nested connections, linear and non-linear components, etc. all of which makes a mindmap difficult to work with (mindmaps are usually hierarchical, and a curriculum presented as a hierarchy would be necessarily simplistic)
  • A Gantt chart might be useful to show how activities or projects progress over time, but it doesn’t have much scope for depth
  • Tabular representation doesn’t allow you to expand / collapse sections, or add detailed notes. It also allows only very simple, one-to-one connections e.g. content over time but not time, content and outcomes.
  • At the moment I seem to have settled on CmapTools for concept mapping. It’s not the ideal solution but it seems to be the one that enables most of what I need (see list below)

As much as I’ve read around curriculum mapping I haven’t yet found a solution that helps me to address everything that I think I need. I know that I probably won’t be able to find a tool that enables all of the following, but this is what I’d like to be able to do:

  • Create relationships between concepts e.g. outcomes, teaching activity, assessment task, etc.
  • Emphasise the nature of the relationships
  • Annotate concepts and relationships
  • Expand and collapse sections i.e. see the big picture (e.g. national exit level outcomes) as well as drill-down into the details (e.g. lesson plans)
  • I should be able to show a process over time i.e. workflow should be built in
  • I’d like the ability to input more data over time, and delete outdated content
  • I’d like to be able to detect redundancy, inconsistency and omissions (of content, tasks, outcomes, etc.)
  • It’d be great if it was collaborative
  • Must be able to review vertical (subjects between years) and horizontal (between subjects in the same year) alignment, as well as the sequencing of activities
  • Define a shared vocabulary for use in our department (we often use different terms for the same thing, creating confusion)

I’ve also been also looking into other domains for ideas that will help me to get a better understanding of graphical modelling to represent complex information. One example is Unified Modelling Language (UML), a general purpose modelling language that is used to represent the various facets of objects and systems in computer science. It is used to “…specify, visualize, modify, construct and document the artefacts of…a system”. It also offers a standard way to visualise the different elements of that system e.g. activities, actors, processes, components, etc. I’m still holding out for a modelling tool from another domain (besides education) that might serve my purposes.

During the above-mentioned process, I also had fun looking at a curriculum as a computer platform. A computer platform includes:

  • The operating system (OS), which is basically a set of instructions for what to do in certain situations, including task scheduling and resource allocation. I think that this is a useful way to think about the structure of a curriculum i.e. what should happen, when it should happen, who is responsible for it, etc.
  • Architecture (hardware) that includes the CPU, data bus, chipsets, graphics cards, motherboard, sound card. CPU is concerned with how programmes access memory. The physical structures that enable the manifestation of the curriculum.
  • Frameworks are collections of software libraries that contain generic functionality that can be modified by within certain constraints. Frameworks allow developers to spend time working on useful features rather than having to write code for low level functionality. Within the curriculum there are modules that share generic features e.g. problem solving. A way of assessing whether or not a student can solve problems is a generic “framework” that can be modified slightly to be used in other modules. Why should every lecturer have to re-create the same libraries of tools in order to assess the same thing in a different context?
  • Programming languages that use a standardised set of vocabulary and grammar to create a set of instructions that the OS will understand.
  • The user interface (UI) that allows a user to interact with the computer and its peripherals. This is the most visible part of the platform, and often the part that draws the most attention. This is the part of the curriculum that everyone can see. The handouts, the lecture, the assessment tasks i.e. this is what the students and lecturers  use to interact with the curriculum. Is is also the part that people will love or hate. No matter how “good” the underlying structure is, the student engages with the UI and most people in higher education haven’t caught onto the idea that “pretty is a feature“.

Schematic transit maps and Venn diagrams might also be useful in terms of thinking about curriculum mapping in a different way. I’m inclined to think that a combination of all of the above will be an interesting experiment.

I guess the biggest issue I’m having is trying to figure out a way to show how we can go from what we have to what we want, from a very high to very low level. It’s harder than I thought it’d be…

Short notes on concept mapping

In preparation for a concept mapping assignment I ran during the course of this year, I did some reading on concept mapping, during which I made some short notes. Here they are…

Concept mapping is useful to establish relationships between ideas and has been linked to 30 % improvement in student understanding

Ausubel’s assimilation theory: Meaningful learning involves changing ones current knowledge as a result of the comprehension of new knowledge

Concept: anything that can be named / perceived regularities or patterns

Proposition: an expression of the relationship between concepts

Maps: represents knowledge using diagrams that express concepts and relationships

Linking phrases: without the relations, knowledge would not “cohere”

The most important single factor influencing learning, is what the learner already knows (Ausubel, 1968)

In the process of meaningful learning, people construct meanings for concepts and propositions based on experiences, building up their knowledge structure

Meaningful learning involves changing ones current knowledge as a result of the comprehension of new knowledge

There needs to be:

  • Differentiation of concepts
  • Superordination of concepts under more general, more inclusive concepts
  • Subsumption of new concepts into existing, more general concepts and propositions
  • Integrative reconciliation to achieve coherence and consistency

Drawing a map:

  • Helps the designer understand the problem
  • Is a creative process (new discoveries are made as the map is drawn)
  • Helps establish credibility within the team
  • The map itself offers the first chance to interject the user as a guiding concept for the product

Progressive cognition (3 levels): review at a glance → readable with some attention → deeper, richer understanding can be layered in

Drawing a map:

  1. Identify main concept
  2. List related concepts (don’t worry about organisation, importance, completeness)
  3. Draw a rough map
  4. Interview team members and domain experts
  5. Identify synonyms and instances (remove redundancy, cluster related concepts)
  6. Redraw, redraw, redraw (each time you’ll discover new connections)
  7. Get feedback from the team
  8. Repeat 4-7

Maps can be redrawn and rearranged to highlight different concepts

Choose a dominant position, use a hierarchy, different colours, etc.

Posted to Diigo 08/21/2011

    • “ ‘Thunks’ are deceptively tricky little questions that ‘make your brain go ouch!’

      Ian’s examples of ‘Thunks’ include:

      • ‘Is a broken down car parked?’
      • ‘If you read a newspaper in the newsagents without paying for it, is it stealing?’
      • ‘Do all polo’s taste the same?’
      • ‘Can you be proud of someone you have never met?’
      • ‘Is a hole a thing?’
    • Active Learning-I ask students to use their prior experiences (interests, hobbies, coursework) in a service learning project for my class, using what they know, and connections they have been able to make, to benefit others. They propose their own projects.


      This idea has all 5 components:
      a. Incorporating peer feedback into a course.
      b. By giving students the opportunity to learn how to give feedback to classmates’ works-in-progress, this motivates students to perform at the same or higher level or their peers in a non-threatening way.
      c. It is also an activity which reinforces learning of the subject matter (active & challenging).
      d. It can create a sense of support and community because the students are helping each other improve their own works (and grades!)
      e. And peer feedback allows students to gain an appreciation for classmates’ efforts and a glimpse of the instructor or professor’s role.

    • When students are stressed by the lesson, find a way to show how you (the teacher) messed up learning the topic
    • First day of class: When introducing class & trying to establish rapport, have the students say where they see themselves in 3 to 5 years
    • I give several smaller “low-risk” assignments in addition to “high-risk” mid-terms and finals
    • Share with my students some of my personal stories as a student, my stories and failures
    • I teach a 3rd year/level class and on the first day of a particular subject, in this case hydraulics, I give them an exam of what they should know from 1st year. I eventually let them take it home to complete it on their own
    • review some student work in class in front of the class, inviting student input. It challenges many students to work harder on their own work
    • I give an exam which I grade and return as soon as feasible to the students. I identify the learning outcomes that most students missed and offer students another test that focuses ONLY on those learning outcomes using different test items. They know they have a chance to improve their exam grades with the subsequent test score.

    • apply newly acquired knowledge to themselves or someone they are familiar with
    • In many sciences, students are concerned about memorizing information (ex. Periodic Table). I tell them that we never used to memorize an atlas, but we learn how to use it as a tool/reference
    • At the end of each lecture topic, students hand it a slip of paper with two items: “Got it”-what they understood and “don’t get it”-what they don’t understand. Once a week, results are posted on Moodle and explanations given for the “don’t get it” items
    • Collaborative learning: I found that students learn better and smooth out their rough edges when they combine conflicting analysis to produce a bounded unit of learning
    • When composing homework assignments, I combine questions of varying difficulty. I ultimately include a problem or two beyond the difficulty required for my course and offer extra credit for solving these problems. The number of students that choose to step up to the challenge is so incredibly refreshing and motivating
    • Have students take responsibility for their learning by applying lesson concepts to their occupations, field of expertise, and personal experience
    • The student gets to choose a topic they feel they could teach the class (for 15 minutes), they become the expert with certain guidelines to follow. Motivation—they are the “star” for 15 minutes. Active learning—they research. Task—they choose the topic. Community—they all practice with each other to get feedback before their 15 minute presentation. Holistic—they learn all types of things; respect, confidence, professionalism, body language, etc.
    • In a writing course, students receive each others drafts throughout the semester and one by one the whole class peer reviews the drafts. Students learn from other student papers and gain critical feedback on their own paper. In other words, every paper is read by every student, and every student must provide feedback.
    • Start each class with a “hook”—something that is contextual and related to the day’s concepts—provides relevancy and captures interest and involvement
    • I engage students to choose a concept from the course and teach a segment of the class.
    • Take students’ pictures 1st day of class and memorize their names. Call students by name from the 2nd class on. Use their names frequently. This instills community and aids in engagement because students cannot hide
    • Allow students to text you with questions
    • I am a student—I am tired (flight came in late). I am hungry (I missed lunch), I can’t concentrate (my daughter keeps texting me). How will you engage me? Tell me a story, a story with characters facing shocking/new or interesting challenges. Then ask me about it, allowing me to be a little grumpy, but encouraging me to continue to participate and reward my efforts. I will cheer up and feel transformed by your class session
    • “Self-correcting exams”: Students are able to alter test answers after the fact—through additional research/working with other students—and resubmit exam responses for additional partial credit.
      • Can the Ethics oral exam use a similar approach? After the exam students go and write a short reflective essay on what was discussed during the exam?
    • Clarify how knowledge that is being taught is important to students’ future work and/or life. Students will value only what they believe they need to know and will use in work/life
    • Problem based learning in groups. Assigning a facilitator in the group and then pick an idea that there isn’t a right answer. You can use concept mapping. First, students present the problem. Second, they find resources and list them. Third, they investigate solutions to the problem and list them. Fourth, they identify the three best solutions. Last, they pick the best one and provide the reason
    • I ask my students (every week), why are you here? I note week one and compare it with the final week. Typical observation: growing ambition.

    • Motivation and Value: I get my students to stop thinking like a student, rather think like a teacher (or a professional in their field) to see the value of the activities and assignments in the course
    • People respond to genuine concern for their well-being
    • Active Learning: I occasionally divide the assigned chapter up among the students, and give everyone 10 minutes to come up with a 1 minute presentation to the class. The students have at least read a few pages, and they talk to each other instead of listening to me
    • When a student engages in course dialogue, I write a note thanking them as their classmates and I enjoyed their participation and how important their questions and comments are to educators and their students. I also include that I hope they continue to share in all courses. This helps encourage participation, especially from those who seldom do
    • Recognize and sustain the “cool” in everyone and challenge the students to move from “pretend cool” to “cool.”
    • Remove fear/anxiety and increase expectations of success by: allowing students to redo/resubmit work or problems for regarding/assessment. They work and learn from their mistakes, but are not punished for their mistakes.
    • Living Concept Maps: During a case study, have the students in groups of 4-5, actively create a concept map as the case study is unfolding—adapting and changing it as new data becomes available. At the end, share the concept maps and see how different/similar they are and explore those.
    • the selection and use of technologies for teaching and learning is driven as much by context and values and beliefs as by hard scientific evidence or rigorous theory
    • There are deep philosophical, technical and pragmatic challenges in trying to provide a model or set of models flexible but practical enough to handle the huge range of factors involved
    • theories and beliefs about education will influence strongly the choice and use of different technologies
    • it is a mistake to focus solely on the educational characteristics of technologies. There are social, organizational, cost and accessibility issues also to be considered
    • what is best done face-to-face and what online, and in what contexts? What is the role of the human teacher, and can/should/will he/she be replaced by technology?

Applying theoretical concepts to clinical practice

Concept map about concept mapping taken from IHMC website

I just finished giving feedback to my students on the concept mapping assignment they’re busy with. It’s the first time I’ve used concept mapping in an assignment and in addition to the students’ learning, I’m also  trying to see if it helps me figure out what they really understand about applying the theory we cover in class to clinical contexts. They’re really struggling with what seem to be basic ideas, highlighting the fact that maybe the ideas aren’t so basic after all. I have to remind myself that clinical reasoning is a skill that takes many years to develop through reflection and isn’t really something I can “teach”. Or is it?

For this assignment I wanted the the students to set a learning objective for themselves (I gave examples of how to do this, including using SMART principles of goal setting). They also needed to highlight a particular clinical problem that they wanted to explore and how they would use concepts from the Movement Science module to do this. They needed to describe a clinical scenario / patient presentation and use it to identify the problem they wanted to explore. From that short presentation, they should derive a list of keywords that would become the main concepts for the concept map.

Here’s a list of the most common problems I found after reviewing their initial drafts:

  • Many of them lacked alignment between the patient presentation, the learning objective, keyword / propositions and the final concept map
  • Many of the learning objectives were vague. They really found it hard to design appropriate learning objectives, which meant that their whole assignment was muddled
  • There were two processes going on in the students’ minds: patient management, and their own learning. This assignment was about student learning, but most of the students were focused on patient management. This was especially clear in the learning objective and actual maps they created, which all had a clinical focus on the interventions they would use to treat the patient, rather than the learning concepts they would apply
  • Most of the students created hierarchical maps which failed to identify complex relationships between concepts

After going through their initial drafts, I had another session with them to go through the feedback I’d given and providing more examples of what I expected from them. This assignment is proving far more difficult for the students than I’d expected. However, I’m not sure if it’s because they can’t apply theoretical concepts to clinical scenarios, or if they just don’t have a good understanding of how to create concept maps. I think that they’re having difficulty thinking in terms of relationships between concepts. The maps they’ve been drawing are appropriate in terms of the interventions they’d choose to manage their patients, but the students can’t seem to transfer the concepts from the classroom into clinical contexts.

They’re used to memorising the content because that’s how we assess them i.e. our assessments are knowledge-based. Then they go into clinical contexts and almost have to re-learn the theory again in the clinical environment. There doesn’t seem to be much transfer going on, in terms of moving knowledge from the classroom context to the clinical one. I haven’t researched this yet, but I wonder what sort of graduate we’d get if we scrapped classroom teaching altogether and just did everything on the wards and in the clinics? I understand the logistical issues of an apprentice-based approach to teaching large groups but if we didn’t have classroom time at all, maybe it’d be possible?

Concept mapping assignment in Movement Science

Fora while I’ve been toying with the idea of using concept mapping for an assignment in the Movement Science module that I teach and I finally took the plunge. See below for the assignment I gave the students using CmapTools to explore relationships between the concepts in the module and clinical practice. It’s my first attempt at using concept mapping so would love any suggestions or ideas. Have you used concept maps? How did it work out?

Concept Mapping in a Movement Science physiotherapy module

Twitter Weekly Updates for 2011-07-04

  • U.N. Report Declares Internet Access a Human Right | Threat Level | Wired.com http://bit.ly/ivNke2 #
  • #saahe2011 officially over. It was a wonderful conference made possible by the participation of health educators from all over the country #
  • Papert http://bit.ly/mggi6R. Being a revolutionary means seeing far enough ahead to know that there is going to be a fundamental change #
  • Papert http://bit.ly/le70h7. The impact of paper in education has led to the exclusion of those who don’t think in certain ways #
  • @dkeats When people are “experts” in a domain they can be blinded to great ideas in other fields and so miss opportunities to drive change #
  • @dkeats Agreed. I’ve had to work really hard to convince people in my dept that I’m not the “computer guy”, I’m the “education guy” #
  • Innovation is about linking concepts from different fields to solve problems, its not about doing the same thing with more efficiency #
  • “How do you learn enough of the words to make sense of the discipline?” #saahe2011 #
  • Presentation by David Taylor on the use of adult learning theories #saahe2011 #
  • Jack Boulet speaking about the challenges and opportunities in simulation-based assessment #saahe2011 #
  • Mendeley Desktop 1.0 Development Preview Released http://ow.ly/1ueXSs #
  • Social media is inherently a system of peer evaluation and is changing the way scholars disseminate their research http://ow.ly/1ueXMA #
  • @dkeats Wonder if the problem has to do with the fact that much “ed tech” is designed by Comp Scientists, rather than Social Sci? #
  • @dkeats Also, people have the idea that LMSs have something to do with T&L, & then struggle when it can’t do what they need it to #
  • @dkeats To qualify, the problem isn’t resistance, its misunderstanding. The conversation always ends up being about technology #
  • There’s a huge difference between “learning” & “studying”, not in terms of the process but ito motivation & objectives #
  • @thesiswhisperer conf is for health educators, mostly clinicians, many of whom are amazing teachers but for whom tech is misunderstood #
  • In a workshop with David Taylor, looking at using adult learning theories #saahe2011 #
  • Blackboard is a course management system, it has little to do with learning. Use it for what its designed for #saahe2011 #
  • Trying to change perception that technology-mediated teaching & learning isn’t about technology. Not going well #saahe2011 #
  • Just gave my presentation on the use of social networks to facilitate clinical & ethical reasoning in practice contexts #saahe2011 #
  • Deborah Murdoch Eaton talks about the role of entrepreneurship to innovate in health education #saahe2011 #
  • Social accountability is relevant for all health professions (healthsocialaccountability.org) #saahe2011 #
  • Charles Boelen talks about social accountability at #saahe2011 keynote, discusses its role in meeting society’s health needs #
  • First day of #saahe2011 over. Lots of interesting discussion and some good research being done in health science education #
  • Concept mapping workshop turned out OK. Got a CD with loads of useful information…a first for any workshop I’ve attended #saahe2011 #
  • Many people still miss the point when it comes to technology-mediated teaching & learning. Your notes on an LMS is not teaching or learning #
  • At a workshop on concept mapping, lots of content being delivered to me, not much practical yet #saahe2011 #
  • Noticed a trend of decreasing satisfaction from 1-4 year, even though overall scores were +. Implications for teaching? #saahe2011 #
  • Banjamin van Nugteren: do medical students’ perceptions of their educational environment predict academic performance? #saahe2011 #
  • Selective assignment as an applied education & research tool -> gain research exp, improve knowledge & groupwork #saahe2011 #
  • Reflective journaling: “as we write conscious thoughts, useful associations & new ideas begin to emerge” #saahe2011 #
  • Change paradigm from “just-in-case” learning to “just-in-time” learning #saahe2011 #
  • Benefits of EBP are enhanced when principles are modelled by clinicians #saahe2011 #
  • EBP less effective when taught as a discrete module. Integration with clinical practice shows improvements across all components #saahe2011 #
  • Students have difficulty conducting appraisals of online sources <- an enormous challenge when much content is accessed online #saahe2011 #
  • Looking around venue at #saahe2011 10 open laptops, 2 visible iPads (lying on desk, not being used), about 350 participants…disappointing #
  • EBP isn’t a recipe (or a religion), although that is a common misconception #saahe2011 #
  • Prof. Robin Watts discusses EBP and facilitating student learning. EBP isn’t synonymous with research #saahe2011 #
  • “A lecture without a story is like an operation without an anaesthetic” Athol Kent, #saahe2001 #
  • Kent drawing heavily on Freni et al, 2010, Health professionals for a new century, Lancet. #
  • #saahe2001 has begun. Prof. Athol Kent: the future of health science education #
  • Portfolios and Competency http://bit.ly/jfFpfU. Really interesting comments section. Poorly implemented portfolios aren’t worth much #
  • @amcunningham I think that portfolios can demonstrate competence and be assessed but it needs a change in mindset to evaluate them #
  • @amcunningham will comment on the post when I’m off the road #
  • @amcunningham Can’t b objective as I haven’t used NHS eportfolio. Also, its hard 2 structure what should be personally meaningful experience #
  • @amcunningham Portfolios must include reflection, not just documentation. Reflection = relating past experience to future performance #
  • @amcunningham Your delusion question in the link: practitioners / students not shown how to develop a portfolio with objectives #
  • @amcunningham Also spoke a lot about competency-based education and strengths / limitations compared to apprentice-based model #
  • @amcunningham Very much. Just finished a 4 day workshop that included the use of portfolios as reflective tools in developing competence #
  • Final day of #safri 2011 finished. Busy with a few evaluations now. Spent some time developing the next phase of my project. Tired… #
  • Last day of #safri today, short session this morning, then leaving for #saahe2011 conference in Potchefstroom. It’s been an intense 5 days #
  • Papert: Calling yourself some1 who uses computers in education will be as ridiculous as calling yourself some1 who uses pencils in education #
  • Daily Papert http://bit.ly/jKlVmn. 10 years ago, Papert warned against the “computers in education” specialist. How have we responded? #
  • Daily Papert http://bit.ly/m7rfYY. Defining yourself as someone who uses computers in education, is to subordinate yourself #
  • YouTube – Augmented Reality Brain http://bit.ly/kcZWXy. When this is common in health education, things are going to get crazy #
  • @rochellesa Everyone needs some downtime, especially at 10 at night when you’re out with your wife 🙂 Seems like a nice guy, very quiet #
  • @rochellesa The large policeman he’s with isn’t keen tho. Mr Nzimande has asked 2 not b disturbed. Understandable when u want to chill out #
  • I’m sitting in a hotel in Jo’burg & Minister of Higher Education Blade Nzimande walks in and sits down next to me. Any1 have any questions? #

SAAHE conference, 2011 – day 1

Introduction by Dr. Lionel Green-Thompson

A country whose health is fragile

The future of health science education: 2020 vision by Prof. Athol Kent

“After an introduction like that I can’t wait to hear myself speak”

It’s not the strongest or fittest who survive but the ones who are most adaptable to change

  • Who will our students be?
  • How many of them will we need?
  • Who will their teachers be?
  • What will we teach them?
  • How will we teach them?

They will be smarter, better prepared, more IT literate, more women, more black students

We need far more than are currently graduated, more from rural areas, more mid-level workers, clinical assistants

“Innovation through diversity”

Why do health professionals leave? Political, security, working conditions, financial reasons

Makes reference to Freni, et al, Health Professionals for a new century, The Lancet

30% of all posts are unfilled

Need to increase intake & satellite campuses must evolve

All service posts should have a teaching component

Doctors who want part-time work (e.g. mothers) can be integrated as clinical teachers

Generalists who teach as opposed to specialists

Peer teaching should become a core, significant component of clinical teaching (“the mark you get will be the same mark your students get”)

Syllabus will change from curative to preventative → PHC, lifelong learning, less factual, more core and process orientated (“we can’t possibly teach all the facts”, “teach how to learn”)

“The world is flat” → information is everywhere

Move from university → centres → health/education system-based

Teach students HOW to learn

Move from assessment of learning → assessment for learning

“A lecture without a story is like an operation without an anaesthetic”

800 specialised language forms in O&G alone ← imagine what this must look like to a new clinical student

Is the gap between secondary education and health science education going to increase?

The content we give students today is based on work that was done 5 years ago. In 10 years time that content will be less valuable even than today. For all intents and purposes, the content is irrelevant. We need to give students the tools to identify gaps in their own knowledge, and the skills to find the answers to the questions that will help fill those gaps.


Evidence-based practice: how can we facilitate student learning? by Prof. Robin Watts

Practice = EBP is nothing if concepts are not implemented in clinical practice

Evidence-informed practice? More inclusive in that it implies that evidence isn’t the only factor in clinical decision-making, and that practice knowledge is an important component to take into account

Different language roots have an impact on how EBP is understood by people from different parts of the world

EBP steps:

  • Asking (Population, phenomenon of Interest, Context, Outcome)
  • Acquiring
  • Appraising (levels of evidence – hard for students to conduct appraisals of online sources)
  • Applying
  • Assessing

Is evidence derived from medical research directly generalisable to other health disciplines? Should be be modified? Avoid making assumptions of transferability

Springer, “7 pillars of information literacy”

Discrete subject (EBP separate from other modules), or integrated throughout and within other modules? Standalone courses appear to be less effective than integrated. Discrete modules found improvement in basic knowledge, but no impact on appraisal ability. It integrated into clinical practice, improvements occur throughout. Integration should be well-designed.

Content in EBP module should be sequenced, building on previous content / components

Benefits of EBP enhanced when modelled by clinicians

Integrating EBP into the curriculum requires a culture and mindset change

 

Morning POEMs (Patient Oriented Evidence that Matters) – Teaching Point-of-care, patient centred, evidence-based medicine by Dr. Eamon C. Armstrong

Patient presentation followed by real-time internet search for best available evidence → discussion of patient management using those sources

EBM triad:

  • good clinical expertise
  • best external evidence
  • patient values and expectations

POEM = valid:

  • information that patient will care about i.e. has positive patient outcomes
  • addresses a common problem
  • should require a change in practice

How do you brindge the growing knowledge “chasm”

Change the paradigm from “just-in-case” (learn everything in case it comes up) to “just-in-time” (learn what you need, when you need it)

Negotiate common ground around medical decision-making

Prior to the introduction of POEMs, use of electronic sources was scant (study done in US hospital)

Led to fundamental change in prevailing teaching and learning practice

 

The use of reflective journaling in the training of play therapy students by Isabella Jacobs

Reflection used to raise personal awareness, and integrate theory into practice

Students find that ideas become clearer when they write them down, they have to declare concepts in concrete form

Existential dialogue = ways of being, reflective journal may help to implement

Students must receive guidance regarding expectations for jounnaling i.e. must be structured

Role of the self in patient encounters

Journals not assessed, although a random selection of journals were analysed

Students not informed prior to journaling that the journals would be researched, so as not to influence their responses. Informed consent obtained from students after assignments were completed

Students initially reluctant to participate in journaling, but awareness of self began to emerge over time

“as we write conscious thoughts, useful associations and new ideas begin to emerge” (Miller, in Moon, 2006)

“regain my balance by losing my mind” (student quote)

“I do not want to be in unawareness anymore” (student quote)

Some students referred to the process as “a life changing experience”

 

Selective alignment as an applied education and research tool by Sophia Fourie

Assingment which served as an educational tool and research project

Students gained research experience, improved knowledge, and encountered principles of rational drug prescription

 

Do emergency medical care student’s perceptions of their educational environment predict academic performance? by Benjamin van Nugteren

Role of the academic environment in student success?

Identify areas of student dissatisfaction / satisfaction

Used the DREEM questionnaire: 50 statements based on 5 point Likert scale

Looked at:

  • perceptions of learning
  • perceptions of teachers
  • academic self-perception
  • atmosphere
  • social self-perception

Associated above outcomes with academic performance

Noticed a trend of decreasing satisfaction in all of the above components from 1st – 4th year medical students, even though overall satisfaction was reasonably high. What are the implications considering these students are going straight into clinical practice? Is burnout beginning already?

When the data is connected relative to final exams / other stressors might make a difference to student perceptions

 

Workshop: Concept maps and cognition by Dr. Stephen Walsh

Here’s the basic concept map I made during the short workshop: