Posted to Diigo 08/21/2011

    • “ ‘Thunks’ are deceptively tricky little questions that ‘make your brain go ouch!’

      Ian’s examples of ‘Thunks’ include:

      • ‘Is a broken down car parked?’
      • ‘If you read a newspaper in the newsagents without paying for it, is it stealing?’
      • ‘Do all polo’s taste the same?’
      • ‘Can you be proud of someone you have never met?’
      • ‘Is a hole a thing?’
    • Active Learning-I ask students to use their prior experiences (interests, hobbies, coursework) in a service learning project for my class, using what they know, and connections they have been able to make, to benefit others. They propose their own projects.


      This idea has all 5 components:
      a. Incorporating peer feedback into a course.
      b. By giving students the opportunity to learn how to give feedback to classmates’ works-in-progress, this motivates students to perform at the same or higher level or their peers in a non-threatening way.
      c. It is also an activity which reinforces learning of the subject matter (active & challenging).
      d. It can create a sense of support and community because the students are helping each other improve their own works (and grades!)
      e. And peer feedback allows students to gain an appreciation for classmates’ efforts and a glimpse of the instructor or professor’s role.

    • When students are stressed by the lesson, find a way to show how you (the teacher) messed up learning the topic
    • First day of class: When introducing class & trying to establish rapport, have the students say where they see themselves in 3 to 5 years
    • I give several smaller “low-risk” assignments in addition to “high-risk” mid-terms and finals
    • Share with my students some of my personal stories as a student, my stories and failures
    • I teach a 3rd year/level class and on the first day of a particular subject, in this case hydraulics, I give them an exam of what they should know from 1st year. I eventually let them take it home to complete it on their own
    • review some student work in class in front of the class, inviting student input. It challenges many students to work harder on their own work
    • I give an exam which I grade and return as soon as feasible to the students. I identify the learning outcomes that most students missed and offer students another test that focuses ONLY on those learning outcomes using different test items. They know they have a chance to improve their exam grades with the subsequent test score.

    • apply newly acquired knowledge to themselves or someone they are familiar with
    • In many sciences, students are concerned about memorizing information (ex. Periodic Table). I tell them that we never used to memorize an atlas, but we learn how to use it as a tool/reference
    • At the end of each lecture topic, students hand it a slip of paper with two items: “Got it”-what they understood and “don’t get it”-what they don’t understand. Once a week, results are posted on Moodle and explanations given for the “don’t get it” items
    • Collaborative learning: I found that students learn better and smooth out their rough edges when they combine conflicting analysis to produce a bounded unit of learning
    • When composing homework assignments, I combine questions of varying difficulty. I ultimately include a problem or two beyond the difficulty required for my course and offer extra credit for solving these problems. The number of students that choose to step up to the challenge is so incredibly refreshing and motivating
    • Have students take responsibility for their learning by applying lesson concepts to their occupations, field of expertise, and personal experience
    • The student gets to choose a topic they feel they could teach the class (for 15 minutes), they become the expert with certain guidelines to follow. Motivation—they are the “star” for 15 minutes. Active learning—they research. Task—they choose the topic. Community—they all practice with each other to get feedback before their 15 minute presentation. Holistic—they learn all types of things; respect, confidence, professionalism, body language, etc.
    • In a writing course, students receive each others drafts throughout the semester and one by one the whole class peer reviews the drafts. Students learn from other student papers and gain critical feedback on their own paper. In other words, every paper is read by every student, and every student must provide feedback.
    • Start each class with a “hook”—something that is contextual and related to the day’s concepts—provides relevancy and captures interest and involvement
    • I engage students to choose a concept from the course and teach a segment of the class.
    • Take students’ pictures 1st day of class and memorize their names. Call students by name from the 2nd class on. Use their names frequently. This instills community and aids in engagement because students cannot hide
    • Allow students to text you with questions
    • I am a student—I am tired (flight came in late). I am hungry (I missed lunch), I can’t concentrate (my daughter keeps texting me). How will you engage me? Tell me a story, a story with characters facing shocking/new or interesting challenges. Then ask me about it, allowing me to be a little grumpy, but encouraging me to continue to participate and reward my efforts. I will cheer up and feel transformed by your class session
    • “Self-correcting exams”: Students are able to alter test answers after the fact—through additional research/working with other students—and resubmit exam responses for additional partial credit.
      • Can the Ethics oral exam use a similar approach? After the exam students go and write a short reflective essay on what was discussed during the exam?
    • Clarify how knowledge that is being taught is important to students’ future work and/or life. Students will value only what they believe they need to know and will use in work/life
    • Problem based learning in groups. Assigning a facilitator in the group and then pick an idea that there isn’t a right answer. You can use concept mapping. First, students present the problem. Second, they find resources and list them. Third, they investigate solutions to the problem and list them. Fourth, they identify the three best solutions. Last, they pick the best one and provide the reason
    • I ask my students (every week), why are you here? I note week one and compare it with the final week. Typical observation: growing ambition.

    • Motivation and Value: I get my students to stop thinking like a student, rather think like a teacher (or a professional in their field) to see the value of the activities and assignments in the course
    • People respond to genuine concern for their well-being
    • Active Learning: I occasionally divide the assigned chapter up among the students, and give everyone 10 minutes to come up with a 1 minute presentation to the class. The students have at least read a few pages, and they talk to each other instead of listening to me
    • When a student engages in course dialogue, I write a note thanking them as their classmates and I enjoyed their participation and how important their questions and comments are to educators and their students. I also include that I hope they continue to share in all courses. This helps encourage participation, especially from those who seldom do
    • Recognize and sustain the “cool” in everyone and challenge the students to move from “pretend cool” to “cool.”
    • Remove fear/anxiety and increase expectations of success by: allowing students to redo/resubmit work or problems for regarding/assessment. They work and learn from their mistakes, but are not punished for their mistakes.
    • Living Concept Maps: During a case study, have the students in groups of 4-5, actively create a concept map as the case study is unfolding—adapting and changing it as new data becomes available. At the end, share the concept maps and see how different/similar they are and explore those.
    • the selection and use of technologies for teaching and learning is driven as much by context and values and beliefs as by hard scientific evidence or rigorous theory
    • There are deep philosophical, technical and pragmatic challenges in trying to provide a model or set of models flexible but practical enough to handle the huge range of factors involved
    • theories and beliefs about education will influence strongly the choice and use of different technologies
    • it is a mistake to focus solely on the educational characteristics of technologies. There are social, organizational, cost and accessibility issues also to be considered
    • what is best done face-to-face and what online, and in what contexts? What is the role of the human teacher, and can/should/will he/she be replaced by technology?

Developing clinical reasoning and critical thinking

“Clinical reasoning is a process in which the therapist, interacting with the patient and significant others (e.g. family and other health-care team members), structures meaning, goals and health management strategies based on clinical data, client choices and professional judgment and knowledge (Higgs & Jones, 2000).

Clinical reasoning is difficult, if not impossible to “teach” (if anything is actually possible to teach [Game & Metcalfe, 2009]) but can be developed indirectly through careful course design. I’m trying to move my teaching from helping students to answer the simple Who, What, Where and When questions, to answering the more complex How and Why questions. Instead of memorising content, which is how most of my students prefer to study, I’m trying to help them see the value in developing a deeper understanding of the topic. To use the content as a framework around which we can use critical thinking to apply our understanding of theory, to practice. In other words, to develop clinical reasoning.

I’ve started to change the types of assignments I give to my students, to try and integrate some form of critical thinking. I’ve uploaded and shared the last assignment handout on Google Docs (unfortunately I only have the PDF…seem to have deleted to ODT version), and would love suggestions or feedback on the process. The feedback from students has been great and the quality of the work they produce has been of a very high standard. I’ve found that the feedback from the drafting process (a requirement of the assignment) really helps to give direction to the students, and although they are initially resistant to the idea (they want to submit work that is perfect), they see the value when they get their scripts back and have the opportunity to refine their arguments.

The research and evidence-based practice component is something that we’re trying to incorporate into all of our modules, but which currently is covered only superficially. Students don’t understand how to extract relevant information from academic publications, probably because they lack the specific academic literacies required in higher education. Once we establish that they need only identify the main conclusion of the study (this is at a second year undergraduate level), and use that conclusion to construct an argument, they manage just fine.

Game, A., & Metcalfe, A. (2009). Dialogue and team teaching. Higher Education Research & Development, 28(1), 45-57. doi: 10.1080/07294360802444354

Higgs, J. & Jones, M. (2000). Clinical reasoning in the health professions. In Clinical Reasoning in the Health Professions, 2nd edition (J. Higgs & M. Jones, eds), pg. 3-14