Nvidia has shown that AI can use a simple representation of a landscape to render a photorealistic vista that doesn’t exist anywhere in the real world… It has just three tools: a paint bucket, a pen, and a paintbrush. After selecting your tool, you click on a material type at the bottom of the screen. Material types include things like tree, river, hill, mountain, rock, and sky. The organization of materials in the sketch tells the software what each part of the doodle is supposed to represent, and it generates a realistic version of it in real time.Whitwam, R. (2019). Nvidia AI Turns Doodles Into Realistic Landscapes. Extreme Tech.
You may be tempted think of this as substitution, where the algorithm looks at the shape you draw, notes the “material” it represents (e.g. a mountain) and then matches it to an image of that thing that already exists. But that’s not what’s happening here. The AI is creating a completely new version of what you’ve specified, based on what it knows that thing to look like.
So when you say that this shape is a mountain, it has a general concept of “mountain”, which it uses to create something new. If it were a simple substitution, the algorithm would need you to draw a shape that corresponds to an existing feature of the world. I suppose you could argue that this isn’t real creativity but I think you’d be hard-pressed to say that it’s not moving in that direction. The problem (IMO) with every argument saying that AI is not creative, is that these things only ever get better. It may not conform to the definition of creativity that you’re using today, but tomorrow it will.