Posted to Diigo 05/21/2010

    • What do I mean by presence, and why do I think that it is relevant to PLEs?
    • 1. Presence as social richness
    • Communications are expected to somehow express the ‘social, symbolic, and nonverbal cues of human communication’, which is of course difficult in an online environment.
    • 2. Presence as realism
    • By creating a sense of reality  in the pictures they produce and create an experience that would be plausible in real life (Lombard & Ditton, 1997)
    • 3. Presence as transportation
    • The idea in this form of presence is ‘the degree to which participants of a telemeeting get the impression of sharing space with interlocutors who are at a remote physical site’ (Mulbach et al, 1995, p.293)
    • the participant perceives to be immersed in a virtual environment
    • 4. Presence and immersion
    • 5. Presence as social actor within a medium
    • A heightened form of presence is created, where it seems that an interaction with the viewer or another person is taking place on the screen, while in reality this is not the case
    • 6. Presence as medium as social actor
    • deep and meaningful learning results if three forms of presence play a role in education. They highlight cognitive presence, that ensures a certain level of depth in the educational process, which could be compared to “intensity” as highlighted by Shedroff (2009) in developing web-based experiences and “Vividness” by Lombard and Ditton (1997) in the creation of meaningful online experiences
    • Anderson (2008) also refers to social presence, which would be similar to the social presence described by Lombard and Ditton
    • in a formal educational environment that of a teacher presence
    • In PLE based learning the teacher presence is not there, but you could argue that there are knowledgeable others out there on the Web who might to a certain extent take on that role
    • The higher the number of human senses engaged in the activity, the higher the presence experienced will be
    • ‘visual media have more social presence than verbal (audio) media, which in turn have more social presence than written media
    • ‘The number of inputs from the user that the medium accepts and to which it responds’ could affect presence and the level of experience, while the type of input by the user, ie. through voice, video, or button clicks, and the type of response received was also seen as an influence on the level of presence (Lombard & Ditton, 1997, p.18)
    • So the higher the level of presence, the higher the level of involvement in the online activity and the deeper the experience. The question of how to create presence in the design of a PLE is an important one as at the heart of PLE-based learning would be a high level of engagement and depth of learning
    • The fruit of collective intelligence, which I (and others) have described as an emergent phenomenon, results from the linkages and connections between individuals, and not a counting of properties (such as survey results) of those individuals.
    • This emergent knowledge is not intended to compete with, or replace, qualitative or quantitative knowledge
    • Connective knowledge, in other words, does not refute or overturn existing knowledge; rather, it offers us a *new* type of knowledge, that *cannot* be confirmed or refuted by simple observation of data
    • why shouldn’t students’ work be available to other (future) students.

      Instead of binning their work after they get their marks, why shouldn’t we be making it available to others so that they can learn from their peers, from what others have done.

      He talks about this as if it were so obvious. Yet in academia we’ve always made sure to hide students’ work… ooohh the plagarism…. [it’s better to avoid plagiarism at all cost than actually educate not to plagiarise…]… in real life, we all look at what other have done to improve our work. Something isn’t right here!

    • Providing information is not really creating knowledge
    • there has always been and there will always be good pedagogy with or without technology